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How to consummate the Research-circle of Completeness in South Africa (8): Part 2

Title: How to consummate the Research-circle of Completeness in South Africa (8): Part 2

Gabriel P Louw

iD orcid.org/0000-0002-6190-8093

Extraordinary Professor, Focus Area Social Transformation, Faculty of Humanities, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, South Africa (Author and Researcher: Healthcare, Higher Education, History and Politics).

Corresponding Author:

Prof. Dr GP Louw; MA (UNISA), PhD (PUCHE), DPhil (PUCHE), PhD (NWU)

Email: profgplouw@gmail.com

Keywords: Circle, completeness, consummate, finish, full-circle, incompleteness, research.

Ensovoort, volume 42 (2021), number 5: 2

1. Background

Looking back to the outcomes of articles one to seven so far published it seems that a dynamic Research circle of Completeness did not truly arrived in our present-day research culture and environment. This, notwithstanding the fact that it is forcing to the foreground the development of a totally new research playing field and foundation, and requires the advent of new research agents with manifold needs and demands.1-111

The present-day unhappiness and suppression that White academics and researchers are experiencing through ANC Black Cadres Lives Matter (ABCLM), Black Academic Research Economic Empowerment (BAREE) and White Academic Research Economic Disempowerment (WARED), have also become part of the Black academic and research community as a result of cadre deployment and their exploitation by the ANC-elite. Here, other than the passive-slavish acceptance of the situation of their suppression and discrimination by Whites, the Black reaction at present shows a clear violent intention and substructure, with the intent to rectify the imbalances and wrongdoings against them. The ANC’s ABCLM/BAREE/WARED can cost them more than an arm and a leg in the near future.111-119

We are at the moment clearly possessed by an academic and a research acatalepsy.29 It is thus no surprise that one university’s research output declined for the academic year 2020 with 44%. It is also understandable why many South African universities are not on the various 2021 lists of African universities acknowledged for outstanding research and learning.  The earlier quoted remark of Goolam Ballim29, the chief economist of Standard Bank on the delinquent ANC-regime, sounds clearly in our ears also on the doubtful status of our present academic and research leadership: “There are no adults in charge.” More and more, we are becoming academic and research nincompoops.62:13

1.1. Introduction

The present-day chaos inside the South African research environment and its absence of a true (completed or full) Research-circle of Completeness must be read as a corollary of the immediate post-1994-contaminated politics which has been imposed onto the country’s higher education through ABCLM/BAREE/WARED. This outcome will be addressed undermentioned in the section 3.1. The roles of stonewalling and obstructionism against the establishing of the Research-circle of Completeness in South Africa.

1.2. Aims of Article 8 (Continues from Article 7)

The purpose of this article as a continuation of its intertwined Article 7, titled: “How to consummate the Research-circle of Completeness in South Africa (7): Part 1”, is to provide a framework with the primary aim to rehabilitate or at least to restart our present incomplete Research-circle of Completeness by making it a fullResearch circle of Completeness.1-14,31

1.2.1. Scope of article (Continues from Article 7)

The information applies to dissertations by master’s students and to theses by doctoral candidates, presented as a collection of essays or articles.

2. Method (Continues from Article 7)

The research was been done by means of a literature review. This method aims to construct a viewpoint from the available evidence as the research develops. This approach is being used in modern research where there is often not an established body of research, as is the case with the writing and publishing of the article-format dissertation and thesis. Through this method the focus is on being informative as to the various local and global approaches to the delivery of article-format theses or dissertations. The sources include the guidelines of universities on the writing of the article-thesis for the period 1975 to 2020.

The research findings are being presented in narrative format.

3. Results and discussion (Continues from Article 7)

3.1. Roles of stonewalling and obstructionism against the establishing of the Research-circle of Completeness in South Africa

3.1.1. Overview

So far much has been written on how to consummate the Research-circle of Completeness in South Africa, without a focus on the role of stonewalling by various obstructionists against its attainment. Various actors essentially make it impossible at the moment to obtain such a positive outcome. Prominent among these are two primary obstructionists: firstly, the henchmen of the ANC regime who are driving BAREE in line with ABCLM/WARED; and secondly, the present-day practitioners of the still well-established and functioning Old-Age Academia.62-136

ABCLM/BAREE/WARED and the Old-Age Academia are intertwined with each other and all three are also entangled with the present delinquent politics of the ANC regime. All of them are characterized by their nefarious influences on the country’s present research. It was decided to describe them underneath in-depth to make it clear how and why it is difficult, almost impossible, to set the Research-circle of Completeness in South Africa into motion and to attain it.136-141

3.2. ABCLM/BAREE/WARED inside the ANC’s broken link of Intelligentsia

3.2.1. Post-1994 contaminated politics

The present-day chaos inside the South African research environment and the absence of a true (completed or full) Research-circle of Completeness, must be read with the immediate post-1994 contaminated politics which is now, as mentioned, bluntly and blindly imposed onto the country’s higher education system through ABCLM/BAREE/WARED. This outcome does not seem to be a point of concern for the present class of university leaders, namely that extreme consequences are awaiting the universities through the implementation of ABCLM/BAREE/WARED, bringing the same chaos as ANC-cadre deployment did in the public service. But the present university leaders all seem happily engrossed in the power and benefits of the ANC’s corrupted and delinquent ways.  Professor RW Johnson29, in his book29: “How long will South Africa survive?”, that was published in 2016, suddenly opened for us the door to this chaos of a downward spiraling academic and research culture and the devastating impact of ABCLM/BAREE/WARED. With clear insight and vision on education at all levels, he writes29:117,129:

South Africa’s universities are now flooded with often uneducable black students produced by these poor government schools. Some of these students, to their great credit, rise to the challenge and get good degrees. But a far large number scrape through only thanks to merciful marking – itself the result of strong government pressure to increase the pass rate. It is precisely the beneficiaries of such ‘affirmative marking’ – they are often barely literate – who form the next generation of teaching [and surely academics and research]. To grasp the nettle, one would need to begin by taking a far more robust attitude towards meritocracy in university entrance and marking. This too would meet huge social resistance and most universities, knowing this, would be horrified at the thought of raising their standards (p. 117).

On the other hand, the traditional intelligentsia remained cowed and intimidated. This was particularly visible in the two institutions which had provided intellectual leadership for the anti-apartheid struggle, the churches and the universities. After 1990 the churches fell into a deep somnolence from which they could not be awakened. The ANC insisted, of course, that the churches belonged at their side and the churches seemed unable to muster the courage to declare their independence (p.129).

A similar lack of courage afflicted the universities. They were, in any case, in decline. Wits…has lost its old primacy. The University of KwaZulu-Natal was in tatters. The University of South Africa…was a shadow of its former self. By 2014 four universities were under administration. In addition, Walter Sisulu University …had to be shut down in 2013 because strike action by its faculty, already the best paid in the country although among the least distinguished, had brought the university to the brink of bankruptcy (p. 129).

In general, the universities were subservient. At the height of the controversy over the Aids denialism which made Mbeki an international leper, UCT gave him a special African Leadership Award. Once Jacob Zuma came to power the vice-chancellor of the University of KwaZulu-Natal, Professor William Makgoba…quickly declared that Zuma was the perfect man to be president and that Mbeki was a ‘classic dictator of our times’, comparing him to Mobutu, Idi Amin, Mugabe and other African monsters’. Thus, even at a time when educated opinion, both in South Africa and internationally, had become highly critical of the ANC, South African universities sounded no critical note. There was none of the bravery and independence of mind that the universities showed under apartheid (p.129).

Johnson29 takes this incorporation of ABCLM/BAREE/WARED into the soul of the universities much further. This contaminated process, what he softly described as the ANC’s imposition of autocracy on “public intellectual life” and wherein a stifling and ANC-centred version of “political correctness” ruled, he in-depth pinpointed when he states29:129-131:

All the universities practised affirmative action, both in their admissions and their faculty appointments. The results were damaging: a high failure and drop-out rate, as students who often should never have been admitted, departed; and a situation in which most worthwhile research and publication was carried out by an ageing core of mainly white males.  As this latter group exited the system standards were bound to nose-dive. The entire strategy was based on a historically obvious mistake: one simply cannot create an instant new intelligentsia by affirmative action. In the main the universities knew this but, with few exceptions, were so craven that they voluntarily submitted to this self-destructive policy which bound to lower standards for the coming generations of black students. It was a classic trahison des clercs.  Inevitably, South Africa continued to suffer a damaging brain drain. (p. 129);

Behind the curtain of this new ‘progressivism’ high culture was dying. To go to the theatre, opera, ballet or orchestral recital was to see the same sea of grey-headed whites. It would be a surprise if any of these art forms still existed in 20 years’ time. Under the ANC South Africa was retreating at speed to a less-cultured, less-educated, less-skilled society. Unwittingly, and while preaching the doctrines of progress and liberation, the ANC was leading South Africa further and further backwards (pp.130-131); and

This quietism and deference to power of the universities and those who policed public intellectual spaces sat in strange contrast to these facts, as if almost no one was willing to look truth in the face [basically because they knew they were monitored and would be acted on to prevent any political dissidence. (p.131).

The above outcome of the successfully establishing of ABCLM/BAREE/WARED by the ANC, follows from the manoeuvring by Nelson Mandela from day one in 1994 to overwhelm every sector of the South African society with the ANC’s dogma, principles and power-grabbing. Johnson states2 9:126: “Mandela, both intimidated and charmed most South Africans. Many whites were, belatedly, stricken with guilt over apartheid and shared in the general euphoria of the ‘new South Africa’. This permitted a rampant and ANC-defined political correctness which gave lasting legitimacy to ANC rhetoric with its stress on ‘transformation’, an ‘African renaissance’, affirmative action, black economic empowerment, and so on.  All the powerful groups in the white, Indian and coloured communities scrambled to stay onside with their new masters.”

The willing induction into political, social, economic and official delinquency by most of the present-day South African universities’ leaderships – mostly because of their own political, economic and personal creed – is undoubtedly true; but intimidation and fear, together with personal losses and the inborn inferiority of cadre-deployed university leaders and academics inside an autocracy, also drive even the strongest leader sometimes successfully into subordinate behaviour, as Boon30 points out30:72:

Autocrats very seldom create excellent teams. People usually work very hard and do what they should out of fear. In teams led by autocrats there will be a corresponding lack of trust because of fear. People can be fired or severely disciplined by the autocrat with very little resource. There can be no openness, no honesty and no sharing of weakness for fear of dismissal or retribution.  There can be no trust, because each member of this team runs to his own agenda in the effort to protect himself at all costs. To achieve this involves currying favour with the powerful and occasionally treading on colleagues.

To think for one second that ABCLM/BAREE/WARED will bring renewal in the form of good standards of research or the bettering of our universities by speeding up the appointment of Black leaderships and a crowd of Black academics and researchers of whom many are already bathing in refined racism and cadre dysfunction and are comprehensively lacking in good qualifications and experience, is wishful thinking par excellence.

3.2.1.1. ANC’s lack of real intelligentsia in its inner circle

The failure and delinquency of ABCLM/BAREE/WARED started from the ANC’s inner circle’s failure to understand advanced learning, to master it and to incorporate it into their political mindset. From the beginning the ANC was handicapped by the fact that it had no real intelligentsia in its inner circle: those that could be labelled as such in the ANC leadership were Whites and many times Jews! And although a handful of later ANC leaders considered themselves to be intellectuals (as some are still trying to do today), it is sorely clear that their qualifications for such a designation were spare to non-existent, writes Johnson.29:128 He continues:29:128 “Few ever wrote books or were formally well educated. Thus, the movement lacked the first requirement for cultural hegemony, an organic intelligentsia”.

  • ANC’s BAREE intelligentsia in charge of our universities

This mess inside the ANC’s inner circle did not improve, but instead has worsened since 1994 with the BAREE appointments of ANC beneficiaries and party representatives at universities. If the above statement is doubted, just look at the present failures and pathetic outcomes created by many members of the ANC’s BAREE intelligentsia in charge of our universities, to see that ABCLM/BAREE/WARED is struggling to make successful inroads and that the ANC’s creation of an exclusive contingent of Black academics and researchers is often a failure. The chaos of debts owed to universities by non-paying students, shows that the leadership of the South African universities, as their ANC master, do not understand the handling of other people’s money and have as the ANC elite that grabs, also started to give away as Santa Clauses others’ (taxpayers’) money. The most prominent aspect here is the build-up of student debts totaling nearly R13bn that in most cases will have to be written off to quell anarchy and revolution, but is again just another form of “state capture”, the stock phrase used every day in the media. The historic debt owed to some of the SA universities is: University of KwaZulu-Natal: R1.6bn; Wits University: R1bn; University of Western Cape: R445.7m; Nelson Mandela University: R313m; University of the Free State: R300m; Durban University of Technology: R289m; North-West University: R194m; University of Cape Town: R88m. The immense discrepancy between R1.6bn (UKZN) and R88m (UCT) also tells a story on ineffective top management, their lack of business knowhow and how correctly enact transformation.  But, this management chaos at the South African universities goes far back, as Johnson already stated.15-29,113,119

Johnson29 goes on, clearly showing the extent of the ANC’s failure as a regime and especially its failed leadership, captured by cadre deployment and nincompoops inside BBBEE and the later ABCLM/BAREE/WARED — coming from 1994 and continuing still in 2021– when he comments as follows29:104-105:

In that time the ANC has provided the country with four presidents, starting with a man nearly 76 years old when he took office, who quite publicly made it clear that he wanted to give it up as soon as possible. He was followed by a man disabled by his paranoia and grandiosity, who was responsible for inflicting well over 300 000 unnecessary Aids deaths on his own people. Thirdly and briefly, there was an old communist and trade union militant who might just have passed muster as a backbench Labour MP in Britain. And finally, there was an only just literate Zulu tribesman whose vision did not rise above the feudal. Apart from the generally downwards tendency, the most striking thing about this group is that they were all already part of the ANC elite in 1994. If one asked who the coming man was in 2014, it was Cyril Ramaphosa, already a major figure in the 1980s. There is no renewal. It is quite a stretch to imagine that a movement with such leadership will lead the country to their promised land.

Sorely so far, the well-steered so-called “new ANC intelligentsia” under the cover of their BAREE politics at universities, seems not to bring with them much by way of new academic and research expertise, or managerial and leadership talents. Looking critically at many of the CVs of this contingent of much-praised ANC academics and research cadres and comrades, they often lack evidence of any academic and research prowess to be able to improve on the academic and research qualities of the White lecturers being kicked-out. The ANC’s broken link of intelligentsia on all levels of the country’s leadership, notwithstanding the ANCs imposition of BBBEE and ABCLM/BAREE/WARED, and their political misuse of their false ANC African nationalism and liberation to get their radical politics established, is just steaming on. Just note the chaotic situation of our country’s basic education and the devastating road it followed as guided by BBBEE (which was nothing less than legalised anti-White racism). The road the universities are now precisely travelling under the guidance of ABCLM/BAREE/WARED: chaos is not only waiting for research and academic standards, but the universities’ discipline, campus and class order, the safety of students and staff are endangered, while poisonous anti-White racism is incorporated into it.62-87,96-133 Read what Johnson29 writes underneath on the chaos and anarchy already present in 2016 at our schools and makes a comparison of what is waiting for the universities caught in the grip of ABCLM/BAREE/WARED.

Johnson states the following29:117:

In addition, the union [SADTU] called for a halt to all disciplinary actions against teachers and also demanded that school governing bodies be prevented from “encroaching in schools”. SADTU also refused all school inspections or other measures aimed at monitoring teacher quality or behaviour. Teacher absenteeism, neglect and abuse of their pupils, is rampant. Without doubt the poor quality of teaching in government schools is one reason why South Africa came next-to-bottom (out of 149 countries) in maths in a recent survey by the World Economic Forum. And yet SADTU protects and perpetuates that poor quality. It is perfectly obvious that South Africa can make no real progress towards producing a better educated workforce unless SADTU is tamed – but it is a matter of belling the cat and government ministers are frankly scared of the union’s power.”

In line with the above delinquent school setting, Johnson29 reflects also on the BBBEE and ABCLM/BAREE/WARED cadres’ and comrades’ senseless hunger for wealth and power, seeing in them a lack of any insight into the disastrous consequences of their politics inside the fake ANC African nationalism and liberation and the ANC’s ability to keep up its pretense of a healthy economy that would enable it to pay in future the salaries and other large-scale benefits of BBBEE/BAREE cadres and comrades.29

  • Hypocritical Whites enthralled by ABCLM/BAREE/WARED

On the so-called “recruited” ANC intelligentsia, especially those hypocritical Whites totally enthralled by ABCLM/BAREE/WARED and their specific view of it as a justified adjustment to the so-called inequality in tertiary education by bringing tertiary education to all students and to the so-called potential Black lecturers held back by Apartheid, Johnson29 shows up their hypocrisy when he writes29:234: South Africa’s great inequality has weighed heavily upon the country’s ‘conventional wisdom’ intellectuals. For some time now it has been common for such folk to issue striking appeals for the hyper-wealthy to give away some of their wealth. This marks out those who issue such appeals as progressive, forward-thinking and unselfish – though it is notable that none of them diverted themselves of any of their own assets.” A more honest critic of the actions of these Whites caught up in the ANC’s ABCLM/BAREE/WARED, would describe it as academic and research prostitution par excellence.  

Notably here for many of the Whites, caught-up in their immense academic foolishness and blindness created by ABCLM/BAREE/WARED, they ignore the fact that it is the ANC’s dreadful economy policy, our equally dreadful education system and the superimposition of the unproductive and wealthy new ANC elite, built on the old pre-1994 class structure that is blocking progress and constructive development. It is missed by the intelligentsia when they hear the ANCs speaking of their fake ANC African liberation which prescribes that there should be a new parasitic elite (ANC cadres) taking and grabbing all opportunities at the cost of the forced-out so-called White elite as well as that of the mass of poor Blacks outside BBBEE.  Ironically, the continuing ABCLM/BAREE/WARED is going to gobble up the delinquent White intelligentsia long before they can enjoy their nothing-else-than crooked pensions.2,29

  • Joker Surprise in politics

For many good Whites who are specifically working in public tertiary education, there is no light in the Future South Africa, both for quality education, as well as their personal future. It seems that not even in the 2024 national elections will the ANC regime and its devilish ABCLM/BAREE/WARED be removed. But is this pessimism, based on a country having been in permanent chaos for two decades, justified? Yes, if we looked at the downward spiraling since 1994 of South Africa into a total failure under the ANC. No, when we start to read the signs of changes that are taking place unnoticed. A prominent element here is the slow build-up of resistance and counter-action by the majority of the Black population who are not part of the ANC’s crooked BBBEE and ABCLM/BAREE/WARED. We need to take a look at the present-day political setup in South Africa and the possible sudden political changes that the Joker Surprise can bring even this year, making a 2024 national election to get rid of the ANC unnecessary. Looking very carefully at our current governmental setup, the coming of the Joker does not seem so much of a Surprise anymore: it is here.62-87,96-133

Underneath in section: 3.2.2. The exploitation and doing of injustice to the majority of Blacks by the ANC since 1994 as the basis for the coming of revolution and regime change, there will be more information on the permanence of ABCLM/BAREE/WARED versus its erasure from our Universities.

3.2.2. The exploitation and doing of injustice to the Black-majority and White-minority by the ANC since 1994 as the basis for the coming of revolution and regime change
  • Criminalisation of the South African state

Firstly, when mentioning the words unrest, injustice and crookery associated with the ANC (and to make the present-day crooked ABCLM/BAREE/WARED and the ANC’s culture of delinquency understandable), it is needed to move back to Professor RW Johnson’s description of the 1994 start of the ANC under Nelson Mandela, when he wrote in 2016:29:47 “When Nelson Mandela was president he attracted much criticism for the shameless way in which he used South African policy as means to enrich the ANC…Mandela could see nothing wrong with this any more than he could see anything wrong with calling for ‘everyone’ to join the ANC in order to create a one-party state.” (The one-party state he successfully obtained in some way, but he failed to get everyone of the 60-million population to join the ANC: the party’s membership is less than one million in 2021.)

Under Jacob Zuma this enrichment continued, as Johnson points out29:47: …Zuma’s diplomacy …was aimed not at the enrichment of the ANC but of his own family. This was how the worst African dictators – Mobutu, Obiang Nguema, Arap Moi – had behaved. Such behaviour was new in South African history. The fact that the ANC could applaud and support it told one all that one needed to know of its degradation.” Johnson continues29:48:“…in many respects, Zuma has fulfilled the predictive vision of right-wing whites who resisted majority rule on grounds that it would bring authoritarianism, corruption and incompetence sufficient to ruin the country. The surprise is how quickly the ANC in power regressed to this sort of rule and even more, how it rallied behind Zuma, defending him against any criticism”; and29: 49: “…a belief [by the ANC on the holding of a costly feast to celebrate its ruling of the RSA that included the then Police-commissioner Bheki Cele and Jacob Zuma] that celebrity alone was quite enough to hold the law at bay, that pouring out money in such conspicuous and wasteful expenditure was perfectly acceptable in a country with 40 per cent unemployment, that ANC government was all about a small elite having the time of their lives. What these party-goers were happy about was that their patronage line [Zulus] had come to power. But what they were really celebrating, consciously or not, was the criminalisation of the South African state.”

  • Use of National Democratic Revolution (NDR) and Black Nationalism in executing White-racism

Bringing us to the basis of the present-day anti-White-racism of ABCLM/BAREE/WARED, Johnson29 reflects on the origin of the official racism of the ruling alliance, consisting of the ANC, Cosatu and the SACP, and its clear class structure wherein Whites versus Blacks stands on opposite sides within its planned National Democratic Revolution (NDR), which falsely alludes to the abolishment of all racial and class differences and the creation of a so-called “common society”. But, inside this creation was the clear adoption of the slogan “colonialism of a special type”. Johnson states29: 103:“…the whites (and perhaps other [racial] minorities) were cast as foreign oppressors, settlers to be got rid of…” To say that ANC politics is not based on racism is equal to saying that there is no Sun around which the earth is circling every day!

The political power to drive the NDR (that has never realized until today despite state capture, corruption, stealing and mismanagement in the name of a fake Africanism and a false Black Nationalism), means that the overwhelming, suppression and devastation of the Whites must be a first priority for the Alliance; and secondly, keeping the Alliance unlimited in power with its Stalinist socio-political order. This also means the direct disempowerment of the Whites and the planned keeping them out of government by coups, such as the present State of Emergency clearly confirms, should the Alliance and ANC fail at the ballot box. Central to this disempowerment is the use and imposition of ABCLM/BAREE/WARED at universities that forms the heartbeat of the White Intelligentsia.

  • Delinquent ANC cadre-deployment

Prominent implicated in the current wrong-doing is the delinquent ANC’s leadership and elite in which there has been no renewal since 1994. Cadre Ramaphosa is a central figure here; saturated in the ANC’s political delinquency and the man who as vice-president oversaw the crooked appointment of ANC cadres inside BBBEE and BAREE as well as ABCLM/WARED.  Indeed, is doing it still actively as President. The exclusions of Whites from the economy and work positions, driving them into poverty, has become the single obsessions within the mindset of every ANC leader.

This has led to a worse post-1994 political and socio-economic setup than the pre-1994 one, in which the ongoing revenge on the so-called White foreign oppressors and settlers is central, with the basic theme or intention to grab everything from them. ABCLM/BAREE/WARED and White hatred by the ANC elite, go hand by hand. Describing the ANC’s mess-up of sound government and the presence of blanket appropriation as in ABCLM/BAREE/WARED, Johnson states 29:105:

…many of the old inequalities of the apartheid order have been retained and on top of that a small and politically connected black elite has attempted to imitate or exceed the lifestyles of the old white elite. Yet this new elite is entirely unproductive: it generates no new wealth. Accordingly, its appetite can only be met by redistribution away from others [making BAREE/WARED understandable]. This has added a whole new (and very extreme) layer of inequality and explains why post-apartheid South Africa has become the world’s most unequal society. This is not some form of aberration from the liberation struggle. A glance around Africa shows that this is liberation.

Indeed, in this context Johnson reflects clearly what he means with “this is liberation in post-apartheid South Africa” when he writes29: 122: “The sight of [ANC] politicians becoming rich men. Almost overnight made many feels that the sky was the limit. If Cyril Ramaphosa could go, in a few years, from zero net worth to assets of over $600 million, anything was possible. So, while the ANC might talk of socialism, the message received by most of its activists was Guzot’s famous enrichissez-vous! and 29:107: “…in South Africa a large number of ANC politicians are also farm-owners and businessmen. A large majority of the ANC National Executive has business interests”. For the White academics and researchers, outside the vital sphere of cadre deployment, BAREE/WARED is the reversal of Guzot’s famous enrichissez-vous: it is a setup lacking Ramaphosa’s own cadre-enrichment opportunity and in which the Whites are the immediate and sole targeted victims of the ANC’s “redistribution away from others”.

  • Mass of Blacks outside the ANC’s politics of nepotism and exclusive cadre-deployment It would be very one-sided and exclusively White-orientated to look solely from a White perspective on “enrichissez-vous and “redistribution away from others”, as injustices done only to Whites: It is a process much more focussed on the mass of Blacks outside the ANC’s politics of nepotism and exclusive cadre-deployment. This is an outcome mostly overlooked by the public and which is mostly not understood by the majority of Blacks themselves. This result brings the Black majority outside the ANC-Black-Cadre-Lives-Matter (ABCLM) today much nearer to revolution against the ANC regime than the Whites ever seem to think of at the moment about ABCLM/BAREE/WARED.

Johnson29 tactically alerted us already in 2016 to the possibility of a collapsed ANC regime in 2021; a regime which is at the moment only kept standing by their misuse of the Stalinist State of Disaster since 2020: abolish the State of Disaster and you abolish the ANC as the regime; and this also means the collapse of its devilish ABCLM/BAREE/WARED and BBBEE and the ANC-White-discrimination that has dominated our universities since 1994.  Johnson29, looking backwards to the pre-2016 period of ANC reign, observes29:131: “Under the ANC South Africa was retreating at a speed to a less-cultured, less-educated, less-skilled society. Unwittingly, and while preaching the doctrines of progress and liberation, the ANC was leading South Africa further and further backward”. Johnson29 in this context further elaborates29:234:

At this point it is germane to recognise that the South African state is already anaemic and rickety. The average calibre of cabinet ministers is extremely low. Many of them seem to suffer from acute paranoia; some believe in witchcraft. In addition, there is very little co-ordination amongst the absurdly high number of ministries and no really strong drive from the centre. Moreover, few ministers have sufficient economic knowledge to understand how serious the situation is. When the ratings downgrades of June 2014 took place – a crucial step on the road to ruin – Goolam Ballim, Standard Bank’s chief economist, remarked on the absence from public discourse of any sense of urgency. ‘It’s like a real life showing of Home Alone. There are no adults in charge.’ This is not a government which could withstand a major crisis.

Johnson29 takes us further than Ballim did inside the bosom of the ANC elite’s way of delinquent rule (and thinking) when he writes29:120:

Thus, both the teachers and the police are runaways, progressively escaping from government control, which in turn means that state education and law and order largely escape from government control. But in one way or another, this is happening to more and more elements of the state – municipal bosses set themselves up as local big men, looting their fiefdoms and defying the law. The ANC in Luthuli House tells ministers – and even the President – what to do. At the same time the state is more and more criminalised at every level.

  • Driving of a ruinous set of policies by the ANC and the incoming of Black anarchy

This brings to the foreground the driving of a ruinous set of policies by the ANC (like expropriation without compensation, the 50 per cent seizure of commercial farms, the National Health Insurance (NHI), pension-fund nationalisation, forced demographic representation in the workplace where ABCLM/BAREE/WARED and BBBEE predominate, and other controversies such as corruption, state capture, etc.), as well as its much-declared radical transformation that is now being intensified under the State of Disaster.29

The hard fact is that the ANC regime cannot and will not withstand a major crisis in 2021 (and they are fast moving into one). Their failed handling in May 2008 of the mid-level crisis around food unrest and the xenophobic riots showed that they are just incapable of dealing for instance with mid-level urban unrest, forget large-scale unrest, according to Johnson.29:234 Johnson29 writes 29:234: While what it euphemistically terms ‘land reform’ might be the match that ignites the gun powder, it is clear that there are many other such ignition points once the government embarks on such a road. All of these leads ineluctably towards large-scale urban unrest and a growing loss of central government control.” A major factor that would strengthen extreme unrest is the fact that the ANC is constantly losing support in the country’s urban areas; meaning that the start of a revolution in an extreme form here, could fast overwhelm the already incapable regime to control so-called “anarchists and revolutionists” (that are nothing else than the new class of freedom-fighters aiming to get rid of the ANC and its autocratic rule). Not even the misuse of the security services in terms of the State of Disaster through which the ANC regime has hung onto power since the beginning of 2020, would quell it.62-87,96-136

The above kind of outcome in a mid-level crisis with urban unrest as evidenced by the May 2008 xenophobic riots for the ANC-regime, was entirely the result of their incapacity to deal with the matter. Johnson concludes29:234: “This was why many terrible acts of violence were allowed to continue for days in major South African cities and why none of the perpetrators were ever punished. Similarly, the government has been powerless in the face of thousands of township protests over poor service delivery, municipal corruption, and so on. In part, this is because both the police and army are now mere shadows of what they once were, racked by brutality, corruption and incompetence.”

Today, twelve years after the May 2008 riots, the chaos around service delivery, poverty, municipal and central corruption, the misuse of BBBEE to enrich and strengthen exclusively ANC cadres, have grown out of hand; the empty promises of the ANC elite “to enrich the poor by land and pension grabbing”, is laughed upon. There are many ignition points waiting to be ignited. Here the present student unrest around funding is of key importance: it is only the tip of the iceberg of anarchy and revolution, brewing over the last decade with the potential to devastate the ANC.15-29, 113,119 This state of affairs is well summed up by Govender119 when he writes119:1,6: SA’s 26 universities are on a knife-edge following a call by the powerful South African Students Congress (SASCO) for a total shutdown tomorrow”; and: “Shutdown looms over student anger”. This ping-pong playing with higher education and the future of the youth’s education is ongoing, extending from 2014, reflecting the ANC’s inability to bring any solutions to the country’s immense problems. Nicholson, Egwu and Payne write125:1: “Neither the leeway offered by universities nor the state’s budget reallocation will solve the ongoing crisis.”

In 2016 Johnson29 already described the then already failing ANC coming from 1994 (and its failing tertiary policy inside ABCLM/BAREE/WARED) when he wrote29:139:“The government also doesn’t govern because it cannot. In effect the ‘transformation’ of the civil service has destroyed it. Apart from occasional oases of expertise… the civil service has been stripped not only of competent personnel but also of its institutional memory. Instead, it has become a free-fire field for ‘cadre deployment’ and every kind of political and familial nepotism and cronyism.” In this context Johnson continues29:139:

…the government doesn’t govern because it simply isn’t much interested in the job. Only a few, rare ministers…appear to be driven by a passion for their work. Mainly, however, the focus of presidents and ministers alike is on the life of the ANC, its anniversaries, its rules and discipline, its national and regional conferences, its moods and its factions. Essentially, this is the body within which they have lived their lives, the body to which they owe their positions and power. And it is not just an organisation; it is a family, a history, an emotional home. Accordingly, they pay it far closure attention than anything in government.

Bring into further focus the governing delinquency of the ANC, Johnson further elaborates29:141: “Typically, the minister is also the centre of a patronage network, finding jobs for family members, mistresses, clients from his local area and his tribal group. On top of which, of course, the minister is greatly preoccupied with trying to devise ways of using his official position in order to enrich him/herself.”

Johnson29 describes the ANC party and its politics since 1994 as an experiment and describes this extreme, failed experiment’s construction and energy as29:245:“…in power the ANC has actually become more chiefly, more tribal, a giant federation of political bosses held together by patronage, clientelism and concomitant looting and corruption. This has created a political regime which is quite incapable of managing and developing a modern state.”

  • South Africa’s incoming Black Spring/Black Autumn

Responding to fears of an inchoate revolution against the ANC, the party’s elite in 2013 sent the National Intelligence Agency (NIA) to North Africa to see what they could learn from the Arab Spring. But, until today, they still do not understand the hard fact that poverty, joblessness, cadre deployment and socio-economic injustice done by the ruler of the day, will be at the centre of any future revolution: they do not foresee a Black Spring nor a Black Autumn for South Africa. About the massive ignorance on the part of the general public regarding the ANC elite’s problematic socio-economics and politics that they have pursued since 1994 in South Africa and their silent power grab in the style of the Chinese Communist Party, Johnson postulates29:173: “A particular striking feature of the crisis is that it evolved in an atmosphere of complete public ignorance.”

On the ANC elite’s own ignorance of their delinquent actions since 1994 (even to other Blacks) and the coming time for facing up to these, Johnson writes29:189: “The most important reason for this almost Neanderthal state of the ANC economic thinking is that very few people in the government understand the true gravity of the situation.” This indeed spells out abnormal psychological thinking by the ANC elite, which is already spilling over into grandeur, irrational thinking, as Johnson well identified and described29:196: “…South Africa’s leaders saw themselves as the leaders of Africa, as leaders of the Third World, as leaders of the black race internationally – and in general, leaders of the world’s progressives. It was an extraordinary inflation of ambition.” The above declaration of a politically mad government was confirmed by the then South African ambassador to the US, Ebrahim Rasool (who Johnson described as a person29:196: “…who had more than his share of problems with the law”), when Rasool29:196: “…insisted that South Africa was ‘poised to become a moral superpower’. What Rasool indeed should say, was that some of the ANC elite are urgently looking for a ‘stay-out-of-jail-card’.29

The above brings us again to the current chaos around the ANC regime’s actions and the hard fact that it can lose the 2024 national election, although this outcome also seems to be missing from the minds of most of the ANC elite. But, regarding their failed governance since 1994, it seems that some of the leaders in the ANC have obtained in some way in their irrational thinking an idea of their possible ousting as a government in the near future. Johnson states29:229:

For some time now the ANC’s critics have claimed that the party is leading South Africa towards failed state status and the sight of the country losing its economic sovereignty would cause many of those critics to feel vindicated. The ANC, for its part, has become increasingly sensitive to the question of failure. Anyone who suggests that the ANC government is failing is immediately attacked as a racist and an ‘Afro-pessimist’ ((optimism being presumed to be a patriotic duty). There is no doubt that the ANC was badly shaken by its loss of ground in the 2014 elections, the emergence of the EFF and the continuing advance of the DA. It kept its post-mortems confidential but its hyper-sensitivity to criticism – even to banal cartoons – suggested considerable anxiety at the now quite clear prospect of political and governmental failure.

The above remarks by Johnson29 bring us also back to the slippery road on how the ANC came to power in the 2019 national elections as an autocracy and the reason for the ANC’s insecurity about the country’s future politics. In this context is it missed out by most of the public that of the 37-million eligible voters, 9-million did not register and another 9-million did not vote. Of the ±19-million that voted, the ANC only received ±11-million votes, making it a party governing with a 28% support of the total voter-population and not 58% as the vote counting of 2019 falsely reflects. The legitimacy of the presidency of Cyril Ramaphosa is far more slippery. He was not elected by the Nation, but by only ±4 000 ANC delegates at the 5th ANC National Conference of 2017, of which nearly half did not vote for him, giving him a majority of only ±200 votes.  This means he came to the ANC leadership and presidency with a 5% support of the 4 000 delegates (and thus the ANC as a party with less than one-million members out of a population of 60-million). Reworking these so-called 4 000 ANC delegates’ votes to represent the 37-million eligible voters, it means cadre/comrade Ramaphosa was elected by only 0.01% of the total population. When taking into account that only ±200 ANC delegates out of 37-million eligible voters voted for him, the hard reality is that he was voted into the presidency by only 0.001% of the total population. The 2019 grab by the ANC and Ramaphosa of state power is surely the greatest act of state capture so far executed by the ANC elite. This reality is far removed from the media’s general portrayal of Cyril Ramaphosa as the anointed and chosen New Messiah and Arrived Black Jesus, alleged to be selected by the majority of voters, who can and is going to save all South Africans from the devil’s perils and chaos. Reality is starting to spell trouble for him. South Africa has a history of ousting Number Ones: John Vorster, PW Botha, Thabo Mbeki and Jacob Zuma are instances. South Africa, as Africa, is full of Joker Surprises that come suddenly to make changes.

The golden days of the ANC and many of its leaders such as cadre Cyril Ramaphosa, cadre Ace Magashule, cadre Jacob Zuma and so on as sacrosanct are in the past. It is time that they note it. Can we ever forget the great African saint, Dr. Jonas Malheiro Savimbi, who, after ending up tied to a tree, was executed on the 22ndFebruary 2002 by co-Angolans? The coup/State of Emergency that was executed recently by the power-mad military in Myanmar with its ongoing killing of the innocents and which has started to run fast into a failure and the prosecution of the military’s top leaders there, may be another warning for the ANC leaders what can await them in the near future if they tried to stay on uninvited with a power grab.126

For those concerned about the further devastating impact of ABCLM/BAREE/WARED under an ongoing ANC regime, the question is: will the ANC accept defeat at the 2024 national elections?  It is doubted by many political analysts. The ANC leadership declared already they are going to stay in power till Jesus comes back. Also, their actions against opposition are cruel, well-planned and focussed, to crush any endangering of their quasi-permanent regime. The ANC’s behaviour during the State of Disaster, coming from the beginning of 2020 and the March 2021 reaction to the student protests at Wits university, give us a warning that they will not hesitate to take arms up against other Blacks.  Indeed, they did not hesitate to take up arms against the unarmed, poor mass of Blacks in the past, as well-confirmed by the massacre of 34 striking mineworkers at the Lonmin platinum mine at Marikana on the 16th August 2012. Johnson tells us of the brutal behaviour of the ANC’s security services when he writes29:83:“When the police finally gunned down the 34 AMCU members [that were not part of the ANC elite and Alliance] there was a strong suspicion that, in effect, they had been brought in to suppress a threat to the ANC – a suspicion which grew when it was discovered that most of the 34 had been shot in the back, many of them hunted down and on the run”; and: 29:117“… it also seems that some of the strikers were hunted down and executed by police in cold blood while others were deliberately crushed by police vehicles”;  and:29:117“Several hundred more strikers were held in police cells where, according to their lawyers, they were beaten and tortured by the police.”

In May 2008 there were the uncontrolled food unrest and xenophobia killings that officially left 62 people dead.29:233 Mercy and humanity, as the Marikana outcome four years later evidenced, were also not characteristics of the various police actions to end this unrest.15-29,113-119

Indeed, looking at these kinds of bloodstained outcomes, Johnson writes29:83: “The pigs had taken over Animal Farm and were behaving just as the humans had.” But it seems the pigs are still the masters today of the Animal Farms and have learnt nothing since 2008: the recent Wits incident of the killing of an innocent man confirms it very well. The hard fact is that one cold-blooded killing by the police is the same as ten, hundred or thousand killings by the police: it constitutes the killing of the innocent citizen and it reflects the willingness to kill many more innocent citizens if needed.15-29,113-119

Indeed, the present Wits unrest and the cold-bloodied killing of an innocent bystander tells the tale of what the students could expect if they started up a revolution and did not move fast to obtain the upper and winning hand in some way.  Mazibuko118:18 reports that numerous studies have also found that the remilitarisation of the South African police of just more than 200 000 members has done nothing to garner greater respect for police officers in the communities they serve and that more and more innocent people are dying by their hands.  An eyewitness, Thando Sibanda, described the cold-blooded killing of the bystander, Mthokozisi Ntumba. Thando Sibanda tells the journalist Iavan Pijoos119 the following story119:6:

They [Wits-students] were not singing and were just standing there, nothing that could cause a shooting”. Sabinda said that moments later police officers in an armoured vehicle, a Nyala, arrived and opened fire on students. “That guy (officer) started shooting. We then ran inside the shop. They stood behind the locked safety gate and watched the tragedy unfold. A policeman got out of the vehicle and shot Ntumba in the head. That guy [Ntumba] asked him: ‘Why are you shooting me?’ “He shot him again in the chest and jumped on him and got into the car [the armoured Nyala vehicle] and they drove to the robot {metres away]. I asked myself, how do you shoot someone and see that he falls down and you just drive away? You are not even showing remorse. He [Ntumba] was carrying his medicine to show them that he is not a student.

Another student, Aphelele Buqwana,114 shot at and wounded in the leg during the Wits student unrest, brings us nearer to what students can expect in a revolution against the ANC regime, as well as the students thinking of the present government114:7: “I want justice. But judging by how ignorant and unconcerned our government and ministers are I doubt there is going to be any justice for us.”

It is a grave situation that the student activists are now facing; and here we are speaking of killing and murder.113-119 Any organised revolution will undoubtedly be suppressed by the ANC, even with extreme bloodshed.  (The Myanmar Junta’s action at the moment to fight off students by arresting, torturing and killing them is a cold warning for South Africans outside the ANC-circle.)126 The primary reason for this suppression of a revolution: Because extreme prosecution awaits the ANC elite for crimes against humanity and alleged organized murder because of their poor handling of the pandemic and its deaths, up to their economic sabotage and thus high treason during the State of Emergency. Then there is their history of delinquency: corruption, looting, stealing, state capture, BBBEE and cadre corruption, etc., coming from 1994. (The intention of AfriForum to cross-examine Ramapohosa on cadre deployment at the Zondo commission is only one outcome of these many ANC delinquencies. The journalist Nomahlubi Sonjica writes134:1: “AfriForm said the application stemmed from the fact that Ramaphosa was chairperson of the ANC cadre deployment committee from 2013 to 2016: During this time, several individuals who today are accused of corruption and state capture were appointed to key positions on the grounds of their loyalty to the ANC.”)

It is thus clear that the student protesters/revolutionists can expect no mercy from the police. Hereto, although the top ranks of the army are mostly pro-ANC and cadres and even showed discontent and disrespect to Parliament, there are some rumours that the ordinary soldiers already had declared they are not going to shoot their citizen-brothers. If these rumours are true, there is very little hope over for the ANC elite to stay in power or for the police to cover their backs. We will see if and when a push starts for anarchy or a possible revolution, how the roles of the army and police will develop.

The increase in student protests concerning the 2021 funding for their studies, is missed as the attention of the public and seemingly the ANC regime is always on itself. The editor115 of the Sunday Times on the 14th March 2021 refreshes our minds on this ongoing, essentially unattended problem, when he writes115:18:

Not for the first time, the government appears to have been caught napping as student protest flares again at the start of the academic year. After expectations were raised by the game-changing #FeesMustFall protests of 2015 and former president Jacob Zuma’s announcement two years later of free higher education to poorer students, one might have thought the government would sense the start of the academic year would be a critical moment, to be handled with great care and sensitivity. It is especially so given that the Covid-19 pandemic has destroyed so many families’ incomes, jeopardising the future education of their children as breadwinners languish in unemployment.

What the editor failed to say was that many of these poor students lost to Covid-19 a parent or sometimes both who brought an income (although the ANC-regime’s manipulated numbers show only officially 50 000 deaths it can be 160000 and more). When the Wits protests started up with seriousness and a bystander was shot and killed by the police in cold blood, Minister Blade Nzimande (after he said in Parliament there was not money for funding available) could suddenly find R7bn to aid the students! It was an outright emergency sidestep by a confused and fear-filled regime to escape major problems and responsibilities in the short term.113-119

But, if the ANC elite and specifically Ramaphosa and Nzimande think their many troubles are over, they are in for a big surprise: the present student protests are more complex, organised and well-planned than they seem and reflected by the pro-ANC media. Indeed, it can be the final straw to cleanse the farm from the pigs that had taken over Animal Farm and are behaving just as the humans had. Looking at the many recent news reports coming through, it can be that South Africa is at last at the breaking point to move from unrest to anarchy to revolution: it doesn’t mean this month such an outcome might manifest, but possibly before the end of 2021. What makes the student protests so dangerous, is that it is a major crisis inside many major crises that are now waking up.113-119 Johnson29 in this context writes29:246: It may take great social convulsions to change that [the ANC structure] because the groups now in power will not easily let go of it. Indeed. Had they played their cards more cleverly they might have consolidated their rule. But, in fact they have done the opposite. The result is an imminent crisis on many fronts. So, somewhere out ahead of us lies a regime change towards a form of governance which is closure to South Africa’s underlying sociological realities”.

Inside the failed education system, which was building up to the present protests, stands out prominently the chaos in which Black students have found themselves over the last five years while it is clear they are going to be in a far worse position from now on up to 2024. The above comprehensive overview pointed to the collapse of the ANC regime as well as the functioning normality unique to a healthy economy, society and university. But, most of all, it also spells out that BBBEE and ABCLM/BAREE/WARED are not meant to benefit the ordinary, average Black person that forms the majority of South Africans, but that it is solely and exclusively meant for the ANC cadres: Black-Lives-Matter was indeed ANC-Black-Cadre-Lives-Matter, nothing less. It is a foreboding of disaster; one that needs immediate, comprehensive intervention and interference from outside of the ANC’s lawmakers’ circus of clowns, crooks and madmen.124 The words of a sick Black man, who is forced to stand waiting in queues at clinics where there are many times a lack of medicine or decent treatment by the staff, tells the present-day story of extreme Black discrimination and hardship experienced under the ANC regime. Tshabalira Lebakeng124 speaks and warns clearly of this ethnic, racial and class discrimination in post-1994 South Africa and the counter-action awaiting their tormentors124:1: “While waiting in line you become friends. We talk about politics and how crazed Members of Parliament eat our tax money and drive big cars and lives in big houses. They know nothing about waiting in long queues outside clinics.”

There are today just too many sick Black men and women waiting in queues at clinics; the chances are good that they can be intimate partners in the African Autumn or the African Spring.

For them, the signs of immense personal, social and economic chaos to come in the near and far future for the youths in and under an ongoing ANC state capture are there, clearly evidenced by their present discrimination and exploitation. Govender72 reports on the 28th February 2021 that the latest jobs data show that 2.7-million of the 7.2-million people who were unemployed in the last quarter of 2020 had a matric; that 230 000 of the matrics who passed the 2020 examination did not qualify for university admission; and that 1.8-million of first-years applied at 22 universities for enrolment. In all, 210 820 matrics qualified for admission to universities, but that the 22 universities had places for only 134 754 first-time students in total. Dawie Roodt72, chief economist at the Efficient Group, estimated that between 60% and 70% of the hundreds of thousands of matriculants who passed in 2020 will not find a job this year. The number of students at Wits university needing financial support in some form for 2021 were 27 000 out of 37 500. Hereto Professor Andre Roux72 of Stellenbosch University comments that even graduates have been left out in the cold72:10: “Many of those who do have 12 or more years of education are also unemployable because the skills that they are able to offer the market do not match the market’s requirements: someone with a master’s degree in pre-historic architecture might be highly qualified, but the job market is unlikely to attach any productive importance to that qualification.

The 2021-released data of Stats SA for 2020 show that the unemployment rate has risen to be 32.5% in the fourth quarter of 2020, the highest jobless rate ever seen: this number includes people, besides the youth, who have families to care for.  That is a ticking time bomb, bringing us back to the 1990s when Thabo Mbeki said that when the poor rise, they will rise against us all. (They have good reason after 26 years of mishandling and exploitation.) The country’s economy is teetering on the brink of a precipice: back in 2010 (only eleven years back) our debt-to-GDP ratio stood at 34.7%, now the forecast debt-to-GDP for 2022/2023 stands at 72%, while for 2025/2026 it is 88.9%.112,113 The fact is that this chaotic situation is going to worsen over the next three years: The ANC regime’s funding of education will decline by a whopping R119bn in the next three years from 2021 and that the subsidies to universities to support operational costs and research funding are also set to be reduced in the next three years, while the National Student Financial Aid Scheme (which is at the centre of student unrest), is also facing serious budget cuts between 2021 and 2024. The pressure group Equal Education said the decreases in education funding in real terms will have a devastating impact, but it leaves the ANC unconcerned.108

To argue that students must move into technical study directions, etc., away from university training, is foolishness par excellence: not even in the technical sphere is there a future in present-day South Africa. It is firstly the right of every student/person in South Africa to get post-matric training; and secondly it is the government’s duty to assure an economy which can give work and business opportunities to all the people. To blame the present chaos around the students’ funding on them or their parents is a typical ANC-elite blame game to escape their wrongdoing and responsibilities. If the author of this article is a jobless academic and research emeritus notwithstanding excellent qualifications and research outputs because he is White and over 65 years of age (and the perfect candidate to apply BAREE to), how can it be expected of our poor and unqualified Black youths and adults to can make an inroad to be trained and be economically independent when they are not part of the ABCLM?

It is clear that the chaos around the ANC regime has built up to the activation of a time-frame during which the ANC and its autocracy will be removed from the country’s politics. The fact is that South Africans on all levels and of all races accept that it’s time to choose between realignment (goodness) and radicalism (badness). They know well that they must make a choice and know they have to act now and to ignore the false promises of the ANC regime. Indeed, South Africans have reached the end of the road in 2021 and cannot hang on until the 2024 national elections that can be rigged or even be postponed in terms of a State of Emergency. The majority of South Africans cannot allow themselves to be further ruled by crooks. Indeed, they cannot take their suffering anymore.41,42,73,78,81,83,111,113 The present Wits SRC president, Mpendulo Mfeka’s conclusion on the failed 2021 setup and the organised protests tells us much when he said131:1: “…it’s not only about ‘striking’ or ‘disrupting’. It’s about making an impact on people’s lives and fighting to ease student woes”; and 125:1: “What is going to make a difference now is that the students are tired. They have been doing this forever and they are willing to go to the extreme to achieve their aim.” The eminent political analyst and journalist BarneyMthombothi111 brings this situation into focus in when he writes on the 14th March 202111:19: “Outside the courtrooms or in Nkandla, corruption is being treated as something to celebrate.”  Dr. Anthea Jeffery78, the writer and political analyst of the Institute of Racial Relations (IRR) on the 11th March 2021 puts the present absolute chaos and exploitation of the majority of South Africans by the ANC in a nutshell78:1: “Government is in crisis; SA must stand up against citizen abuse now.”

The ANC’s so-called “Democratic Revolution” — based on Stalinist Communism and executed in terms of the Chinese Communist Party’s strategy, and driven by ABCLM/BAREE/WARED and BBBEE to benefit only a fraction of Blacks — is directly today responsible for the devastation of the majority Blacks’ economic, social, personal and health rights: to such an extent that Gossell130 needs to describe it as 130:1: “The ANC revolution is eating its children.” Indeed, the end result in 2021 of the ANC’s delinquent regime of 26 years is evidenced by the finding of The World Happiness Report 2021 of the UN Sustainable Development Solutions Network (based on the Annual Gallup World Poll)129,135 about South Africans’ happiness. Three elements are central: positive emotions, overall levels of satisfaction with life and trust in government. (Six separate factors were evaluated: GDP per capita, social support, healthy life expectancy, generosity, freedom and perception of corruption.) From the 149 countries evaluated, Europe was home to nine of the ten happiest countries in the world, while South Africa stands only in the 103rd position from the top: confirming that its people are extremely unhappy. It was only the people of Malawi (144), Lesotho (145), Botswana (146), Rwanda (147), Zimbabwe (148) and Afghanistan (149) who were unhappier than South Africans. This means that more than 30% of the 149 countries selected, were happier than South Africans about their total living conditions.129,135

The present student-unrest must be read far more critically than the media present it: end-August 2021 is the ANC’s National General Coouncil (AGC)’s gathering where the effective roles of cadres/comrades Ramaphosa, Magashule, Dlamini Zuma, Jacob Zuma, Mbalula, and others in the ANC leadership, undoubtedly will be scrutinised. If Ramaphosa cannot handle the student protests when they become out of hand and killings follow, his time in the ANC leadership is over.

Regarding the above state of affairs, we should see the well-planned positioning of Jacob Zuma in his public address and attack on Bheki Cele in supporting the students in their actions and disgrace of the police for their brutality, as well as Magashule’s public support for the students. Then there is already some support for opponents against Ramaphosa in the 2024 leadership election of the ANC, the pending court case against Ramaphosa about his mind capture to keep the funding of his election as ANC leader secret, and so on. On the present development of conflict politics inside the ANC’s inner circle around the student unrest, Msomi110 writes110:18: “A day later, ANC secretary-general Ace was in the streets with students, professing his party’s support for their demands… he took the students on a march from Luthuli House to the Constitutional Court.”  Msomi110 continues110:18: “Given…the ongoing power struggles within the ANC, it would be foolhardy to dismiss the strong suspicion that Magashule ‘hijacked’ the students’ struggle in a bid to win over this important constituency ahead of many battles that are to be fought within and outside the ANC. Some of his utterances when accepting a memorandum of demands from the students before the start of the march to the ConCourt clearly, albeit indirectly, targeted higher education minister Blade Nzimande and others in President Cyril Ramaphosa’s cabinet who are regarded as being opposed to the secretary-general.”

In above context also Nicholson, Egwu and Payne125 reflect on possible political role players active in the unrests, pointing to the presence of the spokesperson of the Umkhonto weSiswe Veterans’ Association (MKHVA) at Wits, while at the same time showing that the protesters represent a cross-section of students coming from different political homes. Nicholson, Egwu and Payne write125:1: “It is dissipated amid allegations of interference from its leaders’ affiliated political parties. There was even an alleged effort by State Security Agency to influence the agenda”.

But, the most prominent recent political development of taking on the ANC elite by co-Blacks (and evidence of the presence of strongly hostile Black ethnicity) was the public exclusion and flight of Ramaphosa from the funeral of the late King Zwelithini of the Zulus. Afrika and Manyane134 write on the incident as follows134:1: “The rebellion by Zulu warriors at the funeral of the late King Zwelithini’s funeral… forced the police to whisk away President Cyril Ramaphosa through the back door for safety reasons”, and134:1: “The police were this week forced to cut the mesh wire fence of the KwaKhhetomthandayo Royal Palace to make way for Ramaphosa’s motorcade after angry Zulu warriors, known as Amabutho, charged towards the venue of King Zwelithini’s memorial service…” Afrika and Manyane134, on the outcome of this Zulu reaction against Ramaphosa at the funeral, postulates that the police (and surely Ramaphosa himself as a Venda) failed to take into account the negative sentiment among many residents of Kwazulu-Natal regarding the person Ramaphosa: a negative sentiment that can get stronger now after peacemaker King Zwelithini’s death and the ongoing attack of the Ramaphosa regime on the Zulu leader Jacob Zuma. To see the so-called “rebellion” as only an effort to “embarras” Ramaphosa at the funeral, is an understatement in the extreme; it goes far deeper and deadlier: in the near future many similar cases of “whisking away through the back door” and the “cutting of mesh wire” for the ANC elite may follow to escape the angry citizens of South Africa.134 Indeed, it is very late in our political history when the Black State President of South Africa must flee a crowd of Black South Africans; it has never happened since 1994.

To the above turmoil in popular criticism of the ruling ANC may be added the open and even hostile attack of Joel Netshitenzhe136, an ANC “stalwart” and a member of the ANC’s NEC, on Ace Magashule and other members of the ANC’s Top Six and NEC on the 22nd March 2021 when he writes (and clearly warns South Africans against some of the ANC elite!)136:1: “South Africa beware: Ace Magashule’s RET faction will fight to the bitter end.” And, then in the same breath, he notes a dangerous, planned ANC-insider fight to come against the ostensible Magashule faction (falsely framed as the RETs) soon in South Africa. In order to obtain and hold onto political power by some members of the ANC-elite (a statement very much in line with the pre-1994 radical thinking of the ANC), he nonchalant writes to them136:1: “…the battles must be deftly chosen, and the timing of each fight must be appropriate. Care must be taken not to allow the saboteurs to dictate the “what, when and how” of engagement. The fish should not be allowed to twist, turn and muddy the waters so as to slip out of the grip of the justice system.” Indeed, it spells chaos in a ruling party when one senior member calls other senior members of the party “saboteurs and seemingly crooks that try to flee the law”.

What is clear is that the present “unrest, sabotaging and rebellious actions” have now spread to a dangerous Black grouping — with a tribal orientation (i.e. Black-on-Black) — far removed from the days when it was an exclusive united-Black-attack on the Whites and their Apartheid as a common enemy. The enemy is now internal to Blacks themselves — varying from groupings to tribes with own clear interests versus some of the ANC elite also with their own interests — which can make the rising protests of 2021 far more dangerous, well-planned and targeted.

From the above it is clear that the road to a power change is laid out, lines are drawn and well-planned inside the student protests: it is only the tip of the iceberg that may tear through the Ramaphosa regime as well as the ANC soul. Other major crises can follow fast (and even be planned already). The challengers, opponents and distracters of Ramaphosa and his Company are looking for outlets overthrow him and his intimate cadres: Indeed, the signs are there that they intend to do it very quickly and very soon (and without mercy). As already mentioned, I believe that the process is unstoppable and indeed well-focussed and steered; Joel Netshitenzhe’s136 request to stop the “saboteurs” will fall on deaf ears.

What will a physical cleansing of the Ramaphosa regime mean? Some see it as the arrival of cadres/comrades Ace Manacle, Jacob Zuma and Dlamini-Zuma as the new top leaders, which can mean for the already discriminated-against majority of Blacks and minority group of Whites further BAREE/BBBEE and Only-ANC-Black-Cadre-Lives-Matter, and thus their further suppression and exploitation. This fear seems to haunt John Steenhuisen83, the present leader of the DA and others, making him spell it out as83:20: “… a choice between handling SA over to a President magicube and a Vice-President Julius Malema and their extremist radical agenda that will take SA down the road to ruin, or finding solutions to entrench the rule of law, a market economy and non-racialism”.

The putative accession to power of manacle and Company as the new ANC leadership, could be the immediate outcome of a revolution or the expulsion of the Ramaphosa regime, but it will be of short duration. When going into revolution, the main objective of the mass of Blacks will be to totally oust the ANC and to install a stable, democratic regime.  Read again Johnson’s insights in 201629:243:

  1. South Africa will not go into a Zimbabwe-type chaos because of the ANC’s failure and bad example as a regime; and
  2. the South African Black majority wants to be a partner in a modern industrial economy and is a people of peace.

Johnson’s insights go further29:243:

The fundamental reason why the question of regime change has to be posed is that it is now clear that South Africa can either choose to have an ANC government or it can have a modern industrial economy. It cannot have both. As this choice becomes more pressing, the ANC will pretend that only a few white capitalists want anything different from them, but the fact is that the overwhelming mass of South Africans of every colour cannot imagine – and certainly do not want – a future in which they are not part of a modern industrial society. As the pressures for regime change increase the ANC will certainly be tempted to rig elections to prevent change – it has already begun to do so – but the longer the movement attempts to hold back the huge majority which wants a different future, the more likely it is to be swept away altogether by the tide of change.

Referring to the postulated tide of change awaiting the ANC regime, I would like to note that in 1984 with the publishing of my first PhD, I postulated that the then National Party (NP) and its Apartheid regime will be swept away in time (which brought me as an academic and a researcher into immense conflict with and discrimination from the Nationalists and Broederbonders at my workplace); ten years later, in 1994, the NP and its corrupted leadership collapsed and indeed disappeared from the scene. Looking at the many similarities of political delinquencies between the NP and ANC, the chance is good that the ANC and its equally corrupted leadership can collapse before 2024 and will also disappear from the scene.86

There is no doubt that the incoming tide of change after a revolution will fast sweep away the Magashules, Zumas, Mantashes, Ramaphosas and other kinds; all to be overtaken by a stable liberal-capitalistic democracy. The Joker Surprise must not be ruled from also sometimes bringing beneficent results: what had happened in the corrupted and despotic Portugal of Salazar is possibly going to happen here too. Let Johnson talk and guide us again in his wisdom 29:244:

Finally, it seems to me that a fundamental fact of South African history is that the struggle for black liberation temporarily empowered a radical left elite without real roots in the black majority. That is, the situation is rather like Portugal after the overthrow of the fascist regime of Salazar Caetano by the Armed Forces Movement led by Major Otelo de Carvalho and Major Vitor Alves, both men of the revolutionary left. After more than 50 years of fascism, there briefly seemed to be the possibility that Portugal would lurch straight from the far right to the far left. But before long the underlying sociological realities asserted themselves. Portugal was, after all, a Catholic European country. In 1976 Mario Soares, a social democrat, was elected as president and thereafter the Portuguese were left with the familiar choice between Christian Democrat and social democrat.

To argue that South Africa’s failure since 1994 was directly because Blacks cannot or could not rule, is a falsity par excellence: It was solely the ANC as a party that failed South Africa and the nation because it became saturated by crooks, hooligans, scoundrels, nincompoops and their ilk: it became a magnet to attract the wrong people from 1994.111 Johnson points out this reality when he posits29:142:

One has only to look at next-door Botswana to see an impressive and democratic black government which, in less than 50 years, has taken Botswana from being the poorest country in the world to one which has overtaken South Africa in per capita income.

So the problem is not black government, it is ANC government. One could make a persuasive case that the very nature of the ANC’s history and struggle has systematically unfitted it to govern.

Johnson29 tells us more about the suitability of South Africa’s majority of Blacks to be good partners in a good government post-2021 when he draws comparisons between the unpopularity of the ANC and the SACP and the benign culture of the majority of South Africans. He states29:245: “…the ANC is actually strongly at variance with majority black opinion, let alone the opinion of the minorities. The evidence of all the opinion surveys is that support for the SACP has never risen above 2 per cent; that the black, white and coloured South Africans are overwhelmingly Christians; that most black opinion is socially conservative (far more so than white opinion), wanting the return of the death penalty, disliking abortion, taking a somewhat traditional view of women’s role, gay rights and so forth. Moreover, such surveys showed that a large majority of black opinion wanted consensus, not inter-racial conflict, and would like to see a solution backed by whites and the business community.”

I agree with Professor Johnson29 in the belief of the possible advent of a South African regime change in the near future that will nullify ABCLM/BAREE/WARED, BBBEE and racial, age and gender discrimination; one that will initiate the functioning of the full-Research-circle of Completeness and will rehabilitate and restart dramatically our academic and research culture and environment. Most of all, the hope is to be able to take back our democratic rights from the many academic and research hooligans and nincompoops that not only blocked the reaching of a research utopia, but delinquently through ABCLM/BAREE/WARED are sending many hardworking and able full-time academics and researchers, as well as our grey-haired emeritus academics and researchers who are all currently making enormous contributions to universities’ publication lists and incomes, into the cold. Many have also left the country, as had happened in Iran under the extreme Islamic dictatorship there.128

But this rehabilitation will need time: it can take much more time than the 27 years the ANC has had to run the country into the ground. To rehabilitate it, the Black liberal democrats will have to root out the politically deployed but incompetent ANC cadres from the civil service and the parastatals, while legislation needs to be introduced in the private sector to rid the crooked ANC elite from there too. Only then may an efficient government be activated, together with a working socio-economy, a sound democracy and institutions such as education which includes the universities.29

Although my writing (as well to an extent that of Johnson29, Mthombothi111 and Jeffery78) can be seen by the ANC regime as sedition against the ANC state in terms of the autocratic State of Emergency’s regulations and misused to act against all persons presently writing about the misdemeanors of the ANC state, the fall of the ANC regime and party is a reality that must be announced and helped to be hastened. Indeed, all the millions of honest citizens that are harmed by the ANC’s ABCLM/BAREE/WARED should talk and write about the elimination of the ANC and propagate it: it is not only their right, but indeed their duty.

3.3.3. Old-Age-Academia’s negative influences on modern-day research

To see only the ANC’s political delinquency as applied to the universities through ABCLM/ BAREE and WARED, which steer their corrupt “deployment” of Black cadres and comrades as events in the impediment of obtaining our full-Research-circle of Completeness, is incorrect. It is a far more profound and radical process whereby other role players, outside the inner circle of the ANC and its many willing practitioners of ABCLM/BAREE/WARED, are also involved to undermine quality research, as well as the creation of racism in research. Existing academics and research staff, Black and White, who are not directly involved in ANC politics are participate willingly in the process as collaborators, even where some of them reject the ANC’s policies and intentions. Their main actions are focussed on the upkeep of their outdated, old-age research traditions and academic empowerment; actions that include rejecting any renewal in research methods, information and approaches, such as the writing of books based on published theses, the publishing of accredited articles and the introduction of the article-thesis as a new research tool in the place of the traditional thesis. Many-times their resistance to hard work also appears to be a characteristic!

The passivity of this group of old-age academics and their utter failure to get actively involved in the various forms of research outputs on a daily basis, are a continuing process which is characterising their whole academic and research careers. This negativity can in some way be described as laziness and the typical behaviour, internalised in their mindsets and lifestyles over many years. However, it could also be a way of “keeping their heads down” and not give offense to the ANC’s dominant ideology. This contingent of academics is to some extent directly responsible for the less than 40% (which is declining further) of South African academics holding a PhD. Many of these academics and researchers hang on to their posts and stay neutral to the politics of ABCLM/BAREE/WARED-managers at universities, living the passive, old-age academia lifestyle of twenty and more years ago, waiting for retirement with a good pension. To get research-active or renew their knowledge and to support the practice of article and book writing, etc., is just a favour asked too much!

Since the introduction of ABCLM/BAREE/WARED many of the so-called old-age academics have supported it in some way, without too much exposure to the politics around it. Again, the opportunity is here to hang on to less productive research in this setup without annoying the new bosses at universities. On the other side there are undoubtedly White staff members who publicly strongly underwrites the ANC’s ABCLM/BAREE/WARED-policy. Some of this staff’s shelve-life is short-term renewed, essentially because of their specialist knowhow. Although they are also seen as part of the mass of Whites to get rid of in the near future in terms of the so-called race ratio and the ABCLM/BAREE/WARED policy (a setup with serious consequences for them but it seems most of these Whites cannot read well), they are at this stage endured (although not necessarily accepted) as a permanent staff component. This bizarre structure — one by definition that must exclude and suppress Whites due to rigid racial quotas — is still leaving many Whites in senior academic posts (as mentioned, mostly for ANC-opportunistic reasons), free from direct racial suppression by the ANC university leaderships. The only prerequisite is that they should continue with what they as academics and researchers want to do as dictated by their internalised old-age academic inclinations, but as long as it does not contradict the aims of ABCLM/BAREE/WARED or oppose the ANC’s other aims, intentions and ideology.

These White academics and researchers, those that form the so-called Old-Age-Academia, are seemingly motivated by an internalised research mindset that opposes any change to the traditional research culture and environment. This obstructive behaviour seems to be rooted in an unwillingness to work more and harder, as well as to renew skills and knowhow. Notable here is their direct opposition to the article-thesis and also their clear unwillingness to move away from the Research-circle of Incompleteness and to contribute to the consummation of the Research-circle of Completeness.

This “unproductive academic and research culture” has lingered on unchallenged for many decades in the universities’ research environment. Opportunism and self-enrichment have often been the motivations behind these mostly Whites’ academic lifestyle: excellent pay, nice working conditions, good pension awaiting, sometimes very senior appointments, etc. — in exchange for their loyalty to the ANC’s ideologies, such as underwriting and practising ABCLM/BAREE/WARED — making them of the same delinquent type as the ANC’s elite, cadres and comrades. Johnson’s29 descriptions of the greedy mindsets of the cadres, the comrades and the bureaucratic bourgeoisie fit them well too. My earlier somewhat crude characterisation of their academic prostitution is perhaps not so far off the mark. Johnson writes29:10: “This bureaucratic bourgeoisie is everywhere engaged in a frantic effort of primary accumulation and tends to fasten on rent-seeking opportunities in any direction – and, indeed, on a great deal of straightforward theft. Feeding the ravenous appetite of this class is a precondition for the retention of political power”.

How strong this sector of so-called Old-Age-Academia is worldwide and is at liberty to obstruct renewal of the academic and research culture, is reflected by the fact that for instance in the UK the article-thesis-PhD is classed as a junior doctorate [found under the classification of mid-level doctorates or the common PhD, and the so-called Higher Doctorates (DPhil. and DSc.) awarded for exceptional research]. Further testifying to the power of the old-age academics is their ruling that notwithstanding that there are doctoral descriptions included in some senior advanced technical degrees awarded by so-called technical universities, the holders of these awards are not allowed to use the title of Doctor (Dr). The same kind of rigid old-style academic traditions may be discerned in the ruling that foreigners holding a recognized PhD from their home country, are not allowed in some European countries to use the title “Dr” without authorisation. These kinds of small matters are emblematic of the planning, thinking and practice of the Old-Age Academia.16-23

To immediately rid our academic and research culture of the Old-Age-Academia is surely not going to be easy. Its impediments to obtain full-Research-circle of Completeness have been internalised over centuries and are to a great extent at the moment kept in place by ABCLM/BAREE/WARED. These contaminations must simultaneously be removed to activate the Research-circle of Completeness and its good outcomes such as the writing of books and articles and the establishment of the article-format-thesis and -dissertation. But, as mentioned, these final outcomes will only be realised by the fast, immediate and total replacement of the present ANC regime with a responsible and cultured Black liberal-democratic government. Yes, there still will be and should be the ongoing empowerment of all South Africans at universities, either as students or as staff to erase to-day’s immense poverty, inequality and injustice, but it should be done with a King Solomon’s wisdom: doing justice to every single citizen and not to the cadres of the ANC’s Nebuchadnezzar’s schizophrenic madness of governing and the disrespect and grabbing of others’ rights and interests.

4. Conclusions

The unfortunate fact is that all of the public and semi-public systems of South Africa are in shambles: from the judicial to health, social services, education and most of all, the sound ruling daily of the country. Higher Education’s failed units of cadre management practice of

academics and research are just small parts of the massive mess and chaos in today’s South Africa. It is not only a government in crisis but an already-collapsed government, abusing its citizens in its death throes.62-141

It is doubted that the present-day milieu of academic and research deviance will easily be phased out in the near future. The belief that widespread research in the present-day academic and research culture at universities, that are more and more determined by BAREE/WARED/ABCLM, is going to manifest, seems to be staying just a dream for the near future. ABCLM/BAREE/WARED’s politicization of universities whereby able White academics and researchers under 65 years of age, together with the above-65-year-old research fellows, extraordinary researchers and professors, are untimely excluded because of racism, political delinquency and professional jealousy, is pushing the advent of the Research-circle of Completeness decades back into the past.62-141

The fact that the highest outputs of publications are coming from the academics in the age groups 50 to 70 years and secondly from the retired academics from the age group 70 and above, confirms the danger of ABCLM/BAREE/WARED with its focus on driving out especially White male academics and researchers. The same can be said of the exclusion but mostly keeping at a distance of able and well-trained Black academics and researchers by ABCLM from our universities. This research’s finding of the “extreme research passivity” reflected by many full-time academics at South African universities also pinpoints one of the reasons why less than 40% of academics have a PhD.62-141

Prominently featuring in this research failure is the fact of the racial preference for the research careers of often under-performing BAREE/WARED/ABCLM-candidates at the cost of the careers of high-performing non-BAREE and non-ABCLM researchers to whom only limited financial support is given today (notwithstanding that the universities get R120 000-00 up to R124,000-00 subsidy per accredited article for these established researchers’ publications).  It is seemingly also expected more recently from non-permanent established researchers to finance most or all of their accredited research themselves at some universities (as I also found with the financing of this research project).

In closing Chapter 8, I must mention firstly, next to my negative opinion of the ANC regime because of its ABCLM/BAREE/WARED, my equally negative opinion of some of the old-aged and outdated traditional academics and researchers of the country (mostly White) who deliberately prevent the country’s research culture from reaching maturity. Here, surprisingly it seems, we find a remnant of the supposedly died-off WAREE still to be present. Their autocratic way of doing things, to maintain a false academic and research past, is their last convulsion of White empowerment that the ANCs allow them, solely to strengthen the aims of the ANC’s ABCLM/BAREE/WARED: in bad politics nothing bad is allowed without a bad reason.

Secondly, my negative opinion is also applicable to those Whites, especially Afrikaners, still working full-time in the higher hierarchy of the universities, who in their private inner circle condemn ABCLM/BAREE/WARED and the ANC regime, but in their public actions and talks at the universities’ top meetings, support with the greatest eagerness, willingness and enthusiasm ABCLM/BAREE/WARED as justified and correct. The slightest token of public support, even sympathy, for those White academics under attack and whose careers may even be destroyed in the country’s contaminated academic and research setup, is mostly absent.62-141 It is here nothing else than a guilty Pontius Pilate’s action in the Jesus case with an: “I wash my hands in innocence.” (Unfortunately, very few of them know that Pontius Pilate ended his life as a Roman galley slave.). ABCLM/BAREE/WARED, it seems, has become part of their New Holy Academic Bible and their New Academic Lifestyle.

Very few academics and researchers have the integrity to criticise ABCLM/BAREE/WARED and to lay them bare, but instead prefer to stand neutral because of their own personal greed and self-empowerment (and possible the fear to lose all if taking an honest stand). We miss in the present-day academic and research culture persons such as the journalist, the late Karima Brown137, who despised neutrality and thus persons unable to criticise delinquency and to take publicly a stand for justice. The journalist, Eusebius McKaiser137, writes as follows on her personal integrity137:21: “She eschewed notions of neutrality in journalism. She believed, rightly or wrongly, that journalism should be in service of justice. She always said journalists should not be stenographers.”

The discrimination that many of the established university researchers must face daily in the South African tertiary education, might well be understood from the writings of Professor Sipho Seepe138. Seepe,138 a man opinionated, insightful and committed to truth (and one of the country’s few academic equivalents of Karima Brown137 still left in our present-day academia), posits138:61: “In Dickensian terminology, South Africa is going through the worst of times. Ours is an age of foolishness, a season of darkness and a winter of despair. It is a period in which groupthink has unleashed all forms of violence on our senses. The best minds have suspended their intellect to advance narrow political agendas. In the process, the interests of their handlers have subordinated those of the country.”

The tragic element of the present dysfunctional research culture, as Seepe138 clearly pinpointed and defined it (and I described as ABCLM/BAREE/WARED), is that the best of our academic and research minds became contaminated, naively captured by the Political Beast Raka, born by the ANC. This manipulated groupthink making them totally unable and incapable to recognise and to observe the chaos in which they find themselves: they have become People of the Moment (Oombliksmense), who are lacking future vision, realism and integrity. This kind of delinquent mind-capturing and steering through well-planned political and social-engineering, we saw under the Nazis, the Fascists, the Stalinist Soviet, the NP-Apartheid government and currently under the Chinese-Communist and North-Korean Communist regimes. It spells academic and research doom for our research culture and environment. [Thankfully for people such as Professor Seepe,138 as well as myself, the presence of the contaminated political mind of today is not one of permanence but disappears as people come and go, although the process takes time].

Although it seems to be reasoned by some of the universities’ top managements (where the vice-chancellor and many of the other seniors members are mostly Black) that there is still in the present transformation some place for the capable White (even the above-65-year-olds), it is apparently with a clear prerequisite, as the appointment of a 69-year-old designated White male to summarily replace a Black female deputy vice-chancellor recently, confirmed: it is and can be only temporarily as a rescue-operation of universities’ short and long-term interests.139-141 Evans139, on the reaction of the vice-chancellor of the specific university to critics of this appointment, in this context writes140:1: “It is deeply problematic to suggest that the ability of members to serve the university for a limited acting period can only be on the basis of their race, age and gender. It is a skewed and incorrect view of transformation.” Important to note here are the words “a limited acting period” as exclusively applicable to Whites’ appointments, erasing the principle of non-discrimination on the basis of race, age, gender and permanence of appointments as guided by ABCLM/BAREE/WARED.

Over many centuries brilliant scientists were driven out of their learned communities by their brethren, even murdered sometimes; because they lived in an unscientific world, saturated in barbarism, witchcraft, evil-minded persons, and many times politicians who were seized by political madness. Today, in 2021, equally brilliant scientists, academics and researchers are still being driven out of South African universities, but this time tragically by political and racial foolishness; sorry to say, this outcome seems to be again in the class of political barbarism and madness. The ANC has learned a lot from the notorious and blood-stained Chinese Cultural Revolution of the 1960s on how to manage and to control learned and good people.

  • Retrospective of articles 1 to 8

Although my main intention with the offering of the collection of these eight articles was to introduce the novice student, supervisor and examiner in-depth to the delivery of the article-format-thesis and -dissertation, the delivery of the journal article, the book and the comprehensive research project, went it further: to show out the easiness with which the article-format-thesis can be written and delivered. Now, at the close of this last article in this series of eight, when collecting them into a research-unity, it fully complies with the basic  requirements prescribed for an eight-article-format-doctorate. If I could do such an exercise, the “averagely brilliant” student can do it much, much better.

I know very well that my research will not change the present problematic academic and research groupthink, neither will I convince our country’s best academic and research minds who have suspended their intellect to advance the narrow political agendas of their handlers, to become partners in the Research-circle of Completeness; but, despite this, I dearly trust that readers will benefit from the data.

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How to consummate the Research-circle of Completeness in South Africa (7): Part 1

Title: How to consummate the Research-circle of Completeness in South Africa (7): Part1

Gabriel P Louw

iD orcid.org/0000-0002-6190-8093

Extraordinary Professor, Focus Area Social Transformation, Faculty of Humanities, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, South Africa (Author and Researcher: Healthcare, Higher Education, History and Politics).

Corresponding Author:

Prof. Dr GP Louw; MA (UNISA), PhD (PUCHE), DPhil (PUCHE), PhD (NWU)

Email: profgplouw@gmail.com

Keywords: Circle, completeness, consummate, finish, full-circle, incompleteness, research.

Ensovoort, volume 42 (2021), number 5: 1

Background

When an article’s title reads: “How to consummate the Research-circle of Completeness in South Africa”, reader needs to be introduced to the meanings of words like consummate, circle, full-circle, research, completeness and incompleteness as used in the context of this article. For the explanation of the meanings and intentions of these five terms that form the core of the research discussions of this article, various definitions and descriptions by dictionaries are offered.1-14

The word research for instance, is defined as: “A careful study that is done to find and report new knowledge about something”; “…the activity of getting information about a subject”; “…research encompasses pure and strategic basic research, applied research and experimental development”, and: “The creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings.”1-3 

The various descriptions of circle read: “A circle is a shape consisting of a curved line completely surrounding an area”, and: “…it represents the notions of totality, wholeness, original perfection, the Self, the infinite, eternity, timelessness, all cyclic movement”.4-6 Hereto the full circle is reflected as: “… series of developments that lead back to the original source, position, or situation or to complete reversal of the original position”.7-8

The  definitions and the descriptions of the word completeness read as follows: “… means the state or condition of having all the necessary or appropriate parts”; “…state of being complete and entire”; “…having everything that is needed” and: “…the quality of being whole or perfect and having nothing missing”.9-10 (To a certain extent there are many similarities to be read in the two definitions completeness and circle, but for this research the emphasis for circle is that of a group activity reflecting the existence of something concrete, while for completeness the emphasis is focused on the execution of a whole research project).

Opposite to completeness stands the word “incompleteness”, reflecting the following meaning: “…not complete, lacking some parts”, and: “…the fact or state of not having some parts, or of not being finished”.11

Here consummate means to: “… finish or complete an action or deal”; “…to complete or perfect, and: “… to bring something to completion”. The verb consummate can be seen as the key-word in the title, describing the successful action to link together the various shackles of the chain to make it a complete or unbroken circle. This confirms that every shackle of the chain is an absolute and essential part of the locked (unbroken) circle, as well as that in the locked chain (circle) each one of the shackles is utilised to the maximum.12-14

In the research of the six previous articles of this series much emphasis was placed on the role and importance of the accredited-journal article, the article-thesis and the traditional thesis in our present-day research culture and environment, leaving the uninformed novice and bystander with the idea that these three entities are the only components/ research agents that represent the notions of totality and wholeness in the research culture and environment. This cognition creates the idea that the presence of the aforementioned three entities in our research culture are timeless and that the three elements/agents function as an absolute, closed circle that alone contribute to the perfection of the present research circle. Such an idea goes deeper, namely that the three entities or agents, in their putative driving and steering of research, are the sole creators of new knowledge and/or are solely responsible for the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings. This misapprehension, on the other hand, has persuaded a large section of academics and researchers of the absolute perfection of the present research circle, as already said: one that is solely managed and steered by the three-entity alliance. This group of academics sees the present-day research circle as being in a state or condition of having all the necessary or appropriate parts to be complete, entire, perfected and whole; a setup replete with everything needed to execute quality research in top gear.1-14 But is this true?

Opposing more and more the three-entity-research alliances assumed exclusiveness and absoluteness in their self-styled research-circle’s pristine completeness, is the present-day inclusive empowerment of the full circle’s incompleteness inside the country’s research setup. Here, the definition “incompleteness” forces to the foreground the hard reality that the research circle of the three-entity alliance (accredited article, article-thesis and traditional thesis) is indeed not complete; it is loosely structured but still lacking some parts and is thus unfinished: the circle needs to be consummated.12-14 Furthermore, the incoming and growing demands of the full circle consisting of those, until now, passive members higher in the hierarchy of the research setup, are starting to highlight the shortcomings of the self-styled circle of the three-entity alliance. A clear and definite process has been initiated to reveal the fallacy or the incompleteness of the current “complete circle of the three-entity alliance”: it constitutes an increasingly failing setup, being itself the result of past evolution, that needs to undergo a complete restructuring.1-14

This article, entitled: “How to consummate the Research-circle of Completeness in South Africa: Part 1”, the aim is to pinpoint the shortcomings of the self-styled circle of the three-entity alliance and to transform this incomplete circle into the full-research circle of completeness.1-14

1.1. Introduction

It seems as if a dynamic Research circle of Completeness (also referred to as the Full-research circle of Completeness) has arrived at last in our research culture and environment, forcing to the foreground the development of a totally new research playing field and foundation, and the advent of new research agents with manifold needs and demands. The first prominent element that stands out is the immense need for initiating dynamic growth in our research setup in which previously neglected research agents, notwithstanding their prominence in our research history, might claim their rights and play a larger role. Secondly, a positive change is taking place in the mindsets of serious academics and researchers in favour of generating funds for universities through the Research-circle of Completeness. Thirdly, although not very prominent, one encounters the presence of a small group of academics and researchers who openly declared their belief in justice and a non-racial, academic and research excellence in New South Africa (JNARENSA).

Although it is possible to obtain PhD study free or cheaply at universities of excellence in countries like Germany, France, Finland, Sweden, Norway and more recently in some way also South Africa, there must not be any misunderstanding that universities worldwide or here in South Africa do not make money or lack the intention to make money out of research: where the students do not pay, the governments still subsidise the universities. This profitable PhD market is confirmed by the fact that PhDs are awarded in masses at universities worldwide. For instance, the yearly delivery of PhDs in Brazil is more than 31 000 (yearly average for the period 1987 to 2016). The US awarded 71 000 doctorates in 2017 while Germany and the UK each awarded 28 000 in 2018. There was a rise of 8% between 2013 to 2017 across the OECD countries:  particularly in Mexico, Spain and the USA. If the current pace of growth continues, 2.3% of today’s young adults living in OECD countries will go on to study at doctoral level. Hereto there is an enormous opportunity to enlarge the study sector for PhDs worldwide: Only 1.1% of 25- to 64-year-olds worldwide held a doctoral degree in 2018, while less than 2% of the world population and 1.2% of the USA population hold a doctorate according to the US Census Bureau, making the possession of a PhD something rare.15-28

The fact is that, financially, the studying costs for more affluent students as well as for the state (and taxpayer) which subsidises all these studies, stay enormously high. Hereto in South Africa it is especially the traditional thesis (PhD) that brings good money for universities through state subsidy. (A single PhD thesis ensures three times more income per degree than a master’s dissertation or an accredited article: R360 000 versus R120 000). That South African universities can benefit (and are already benefitting) from an income generated by focussed research, such as the PhD, Master’s degree and accredited article, is confirmed by the well-paid subsidies they are receiving from the South African State if the advanced degrees are completed inside the prescribed registration period: PhD: R360 000; Master: R120,000; while an accredited article also brings in R120 000.15-28

When comparing South Africa’s present output of PhDs with that for instance of the UK (28 000 PhDs for 2018) with a population of 60 million nearly equal to that of South Africa, the South African output is one of great concern in various areas. Comparing these very different numbers between the UK and us, it confirms that the South African Research-circle of Completeness is uncompleted, underused and most of all, misused. Although our yearly output has risen from 1 420 PhD-graduates in 2010 to nearly 3 000 in 2016, it is a ninth of the UK’s output per annum. The above deficient PhD numbers in comparison to our population (57 million), is further confirmed by comparing our doctoral graduates per million people with that of the UK and Switzerland: of significance here is our pathetic 46 doctoral graduates per 1 million against the 409 of the UK and the 465 of Switzerland. A further negative element in our PhD culture, which undermines the normal or functioning PhD program, is our high drop-out rate that compares well with the estimated one of 30% for the UK and 50% for the USA.15-28

There is with good reason serious concern about the future upkeep of the quality of our PhDs, given that only 40% of our university staff are holders of PhDs, making the group totally insufficient to be truly equipped lecturers, supervisors and examiners. What further aggravates this lack of sufficient supervising (and thus the present quality of the PhDs that are awarded), is the fact that the political bewitching of Broad-based Black Economic Empowerment (BBBEE) has also spread its poisonous roots dramatically since 1994, in the form of Black Academic Research Economic Empowerment (BAREE), ANC Black Cadre Lives Matter (ABCLM)) and White Academic Research Economic Disempowerment (WARED) at South African universities. Here the sole and organised intention is to driveout able and skilled Black and White academics and researchers outside the ANC’s inner-circle, eliminating the remaining sound and sufficient supervising, as well as examining of the present-day post-graduates. Besides the growing decrease of the 40% qualified supervisors of academics with PhDs, the setup is aggravated by the level of the BAREE candidates’ and cadres’ poor and substandard qualifications. The fact is that the qualifications of most of the incoming Black novice lecturers vary from honours- to master-degrees: indeed, unqualified and unskilled people who will themselves still need supervising and academic-leadership guidance for a long time to come. How negative the impact of ABCLM/BAREE/WARED already is on our research culture, is confirmed by the fact that the research output in articles from one South African university declined from ±1 800 in 2019 to ±1 000 in 2020 (during a time when the presence of Covid-19 should have stimulated and given more time for research, article writing and publishing while many researchers were allowed to work undisturbed from home). Talk by the South African government and higher-education authorities of lifting our PhD output to ±5 000 per annum while maintaining a high level of research quality and integrity, is wishful thinking par excellence.15-28

What is needed at this stage, is vision, strategic thinking and planning, together with project and business planning. The doing away with outdated academic and research traditions, customs and habits, the limiting of contaminated politics and an immediate upgrading of our research standards and the output of research of excellence, must be a first 2021-priority. The intention to do above will be addressed in the next article (Number 8): “How to consummate the Research-circle of Completeness in South Africa: Part 2”.

1.2. Aims of Article 7 (Continues in Article 8)

The purpose of this article is to provide a framework with the primary aim to rehabilitate or at least to restart our present incomplete Research-circle of Completeness by making it a fullResearch circle of Completeness.1-14,31

1.2.1. Scope of article (Continues in Article 8)

The information applies to dissertations by master’s students and to theses by doctoral candidates, presented as a collection of essays or articles.

2. Method (Continues in Article 8)

The research was been done by means of a literature review. This method aims to construct a viewpoint from the available evidence as the research develops. This approach is being used in modern research where there is often not an established body of research, as is the case with the writing and publishing of the article-format dissertation and thesis. Through this method the focus is on being informative as to the various local and global approaches to the delivery of article-format theses or dissertations. The sources include the guidelines of universities on the writing of the article-thesis for the period 1975 to 2020.

The research findings are being presented in narrative format.

3. Results and discussion (Continues in Article 8)

3.1. Research-circle of Completeness

3.1.1. Overview

When studying the literature on modern-day research approaches, and the belief systems driving and managing these, it is clear that many important facets of research are being neglected. Essentially, because of the dominance in some researchers’ minds of the bi-polar or absolute-research approach which is pitting the traditional thesis against the article-thesis and blocking new arrivals and development. In-between these two extreme poles it is hard to discern another shade of agreement or difference in research that may easily improve or dislodge the current incomplete Research-circle of Completeness.1-14

3.1.2. The intertwined five elements of the Perfect Research-circle of Completeness

The complex and inclusive whole or total-research setup – the Research Circle of Completeness (also described as the perfect-research combination model) in which research in reality should function — is either obviously ignored, many times degraded and belittled, or it seems, simply unknown to some researchers; essentially because of their belief in the exclusive support and subscribing to the writing of the traditional thesis, and more recently, the writing of journal articles and the not-so-always-popular article-thesis. The interrelationship between these three elements with the other elements in waiting of the Research Circle of Completeness, is ignored most of the time, instead of be used to promote and exploit it to the benefit of the greater research community and to the benefit of the author of journal articles and the student/writer of the thesis.1-14

What is clearly in evidence here, are the failure to acknowledge or to know the existence of the Research-circle of Completeness; there are further stages of research outcomes and other research identities than only the involvement of the assumed 1) writing of the traditional thesis, 2) the writing of journal articles and 3) the writing of an article-thesis.

The above reflection on the Research-circle of Completeness, ending in three consecutive start-up stages, is incorrect. We are still entangled in the Uncompleted Research-circle of Completeness. Two further stages must be completed to realize fully the Research-circle of Completeness; it brings to the foreground a much-refined functioning circle built into this Completeness. In this series of seven articles the research concentrates prominently in the first six articles only on the outcome of the article-format thesis as an end-product, and the creation of it through the collection of published journal articles to form its contents. The aim of the research thus needs to be extended.1-14

3.1.2.1. The Dual-research model embedded in the Tripartite-research model

The above research setup and its initial research aims reflect a dual-research model, consisting of two parts, namely: 1) the collection of journal articles; and 2) the compiling of an article-thesis from it.

In reality the above end-product of the article-thesis reflects a tripartite-research model, consisting of three parts too: 1) the collection of new data; 2) the writing and collecting of journal articles; and 3) the writing of the article-thesis.

Looking at the traditional thesis’s constitution, its end-product also reflects the three stages of the tripartite-research model: 1) the collecting of data to write a thesis; 2) the writing and publishing of a traditional thesis; and 3) the extraction data from the traditional thesis’s contents to write and publish accredited-journal articles.

The initial description of the article-format thesis as a unique research model with its own character and research domain — classed and dressed up as a totally new approach to drive a totally new research model, divorced from the traditional-thesis model, and a jump into the unknown to better research and qualification titles — is not entirely true. On the contrary, neither does it offer confirmation that the article-format is exclusively meant for certain students, nor is it true that it is difficult to manage or that it requires more time and input than the traditional thesis as has many times been argued by a section of the research leadership. It is in reality only a sub-part (under-stage) of a much-greater research setup in which other research elements are as difficult and challenging as those of the article-thesis to execute.16,32-34

3.1.2.2. The Quadripartite-research model

Looking at the comprehensive research of the Research Circle of Completeness, even the above tripartite-research model is insufficient to fulfil all its requirements. A fourth research step, with a specific further research outcome, is needed.16,32-34

This fourth and last stage of research, the quadripartite-research model, to complete the Research Circle of Completeness, goes further in the following way: it activates the last step of the circle of research. This stage is mostly missed and fails to be included by the proponents of either the article-format thesis or the traditional thesis. Prominent here is the completion of another important project after the obtention of the master’s degree or PhD degree by candidates: the exclusive publishing of a book that is specifically focussed on the research of the masters or the PhD.16,32-34

Looking retrospectively at the development of the (perfect/true) Research Circle of Completeness, the initial manuscripts of the traditional thesis and the article-thesis (together with its collection of journal articles) serve respectively as the manuscripts for the masters and/or the PhD’s draft books waiting to be published.

Although the success of the quadripartite-research model may be seen by many of the new class of article-format proponents as not reachable, the results obtained by this approach show that it is indeed the most applicable, effective and direct one to be used by the graduate to accomplise in a short time a strong personal, academic and research CV: leading to a CV  consisting of two to five (and more) published articles, a master’s and/or a PhD degree and a published book (and the start of more constructive research outputs).

My research with this series confirmed that this is reachable, although more seldom than often. If the pre-selection of the postgraduate students is strict, allowing only students of quality into the master’s or PhD program, the quadripartite-research model is undoubtedly the ideal and only format for all students and mostly suitable for all disciplines. The coherence, intentions, organisation and research rules of the quadripartite-research model makes it easy for the student to manage his/her time between writing the manuscript of the standard or traditional dissertation/thesis, the tailoring and writing of the articles from this manuscript, their presentation to journals, their revision and resubmission if needed before their final publication, the incorporation of the articles in the thesis document and the presentation of the thesis for examination and the publishing of the book at the same time. The same is true for the research cycle of the so-called “article-thesis”, starting with the writing of the various journal articles, the writing of the master’s or the PhD thesis and the publishing of a book.

The quadripartite-research model entails no more work nor a greater time investment than the dual-research model or the tripartite-research model: all that it requires is that the student, as well as his supervisor/promotor must be able, skilled and well-trained in especially advanced postgraduate research and have a well-established academic, cognitive mindset.16,32-34

Looking at the contents of the quadripartite-research model it is evident that the present-day research is mostly stuck in the tripartite-research model. The missing two links or parts – to reach the last stage of the five-parts research circle (the Research-circle of Completeness) for those involved in both the traditional thesis and the article-thesis — the following two steps need to be mastered:

  • Traditional thesis: The publishing of accredited journal articles and a book; both based on the contents of the traditional thesis; and
  • Article-thesis: The publishing of a book based on the contents of the article-thesis.

The “ability needed” for the above is the following: to conquer the Aha! insight and perfecting of advanced research, are still to be mastered by many researchers and academics, essentially because they lack the quadripartite models cognition and its impact on their research mindsets. Within the scope of the Aha! insight, the knowledge that is missing from the mindset of many academics and researchers, to successfully reach the final stage of the Research-circle of Completeness, is thus the following:

  • Inability and non-involvement in extracting data from published traditional theses, and to rewrite this information as authors for the publishing of accredited articles in journals and books; and
  • Inability and non-involvement in extracting data from published article-theses and to rewrite this information as authors for the publication of books.

It is of the utmost important to note that data collecting and the writing of a book by an author is an ongoing and intertwined process before the Research-circle of Completeness may be successfully reached. This totality cannot be partitioned as is done in the current research model by offering separate entities, such as the journal article, the article-thesis and the traditional thesis, as exclusive research end-products. It lacks the essential part: the entity of the book. Without the outcome of the book, the research profile is nothing else but a research circle of incompleteness, undermining and impeding quality research, as well as damaging the interests of authors and students, and those of universities.35

3.1.2.2.1. Extracting the traditional thesis’s contents into journal articles
3.1.2.2.1.1. Overview

The research literature is filled with warnings and cautions on the troubles that await an aspirant writer who wants to turn his /her thesis into journal articles. Often mentioned here is “advice” as in the following example36:1:

One of the most important points to note is that writing an article from a thesis is not simply a task of cutting and pasting. The purpose and format of a thesis or dissertation is very different from that of a journal article or book chapter. The primary audience for the thesis is the examiner that they have mastered research techniques and understand the arguments they are making. This can make the thesis repetitive and full of detail. The wider audience for the article or book chapter will want to know about the arguments or findings and at same time be convinced that the findings are authentic and trustworthy.

These kinds of opinions are mostly still stuck into the mindset of those active in the thesis-delivery of two decades ago when the traditional thesis was an exclusive instrument for examination and when many in the reader audience were exclusive academics still following the rules of the Middle Ages Academia. Also seen and courted as the sole research end-product worthy of the name, was the traditional thesis.

However, looking at the research-quality output of many theses today, the above advice falls flat and it is evident for instance that there is very little difference in the construction and compiling of the journal article (mini-dissertation) and the article-thesis/traditional thesis. Both models are looking critically if the author/student has mastered research, can do in-depth analysis and make responsible conclusions; both require a good standard of research; both have moved into a sphere where exclusive as well as inclusive readers read and consult it. Yes, of course there is a scaling-down of the contents of journal articles from the contents of the thesis because of a difference in the quantity of material, but every researcher who has delivered a quality thesis, should know these prescriptions well if he/she was strictly selected as a student of excellence before enrolment for the thesis study and received excellent research training as an undergraduate in the honours-degree or the fourth year of his/her bachelor degree. Indeed, the senior undergraduate student should already have published successfully at least two journal articles in unaccredited/accredited journals in his/her last year of study. This performance evaluation would successfully sift the poor-quality, average and research-problematic student from the circle of possible candidates for the article-thesis or -dissertation or the traditional thesis and dissertation. The extent to which the university seems mostly to fail to do a strict pre-selection for the enrolment of the thesis and dissertation, and the lack of research training at undergraduate level, are well reflected by the constant foolish emphasis by so-called experts and self-styled thesis mentors on the necessity of “doing babysitting” for the aspirant article-thesis students, as is often reflected in the media. This reveals nothing else than their own naivety, inability and undertraining as academics and researchers in their over-eagerness to “guide” aspirant authors and students on “how to successfully write” a journal article, the article-format thesis and the traditional thesis. These so-called experts’ customs, habits and inclinations to enslave, to over-manage and over-subordinate the thesis student into a “baby researcher”, speak volumes about their own lack of knowledge on how enormously some of their senior students’ training and knowhow have jumped over the last ten years. This lack of knowhow and experience is well reflected by a seemingly self-styled expert’s remark that reads36:1: “…in selecting articles from a thesis or dissertation the supervisor’s role is to assist the student in formulating purposes for the paper”, propagate specifically the “much-needed assistance of the supervisor in deciding on the authorship, planning and writing of the journal article, selecting the article and reviewing the article before submission”.

The above is a prime example of the potentially misleading advice by so-called “thesis experts” that also try to ride on the “wagon of learning”, despite being untrained. The above type of exclusive knowhow referred to, consists of knowhow and skills authors and writers should have conquered long before their moving into the enrolment phase for a dissertation or thesis.36

Article writing from the text of a traditional thesis requires far less effort and input than that needed with a total new collection of data for the writing of the accredited-journal articles of the  article-format thesis: it requires  a far shorter path to travel and time spent, because most of the data needed have already been written down and is well-known to the graduate of the traditional thesis, while the graduate’s established experience in thesis-writing empowers him/her to address data reworking and the drawing of conclusions.

Regarding general obstacles in the transformation of the traditional thesis into accredited-journal articles, the crafting of the articles is of great importance; it should also be addressed as a training component in the student’s undergraduate education. As in all forms of writing outputs, certain precautions are needed — very much in line with the rules of writing a  traditional thesis that the author in this case has already abided by previously.  For the compiling of the journal articles it is important that only information compiled and written by the student initially as part of his traditional thesis, be included; while information obtained in his undergraduate studies as well as data published in unaccredited or not peer-reviewed journals from that time, should not be included in these extracted articles. With reference to the sole/dual authorship of the articles, it must be noted that the initial relationship between the adviser/supervisor of the thesis and the student changes after the student has graduated with his/her thesis, cancelling the so-called “student dependence”. Preferably the student’s name as author of the planned to-be-published articles should be placed alone on these if the supervisor has not directly been involved in the writing and publication of these articles. To avoid conflicts of interest it is important that the thesis graduate and his supervisor negotiate new post-graduate roles on the various outcomes of the thesis, such as the offering of it as journal articles before embarking on the publishing of articles extracted from a published thesis.37

There are many benefits to publishing extracted journal articles from a completed traditional thesis. Among the direct benefits standing out here, is the direct and valuable contribution of the writer to his field of interest: it can offer new theories, methods and findings worth sharing with other researchers in the student’s field. In addition, the publication of an accredited article or articles from an existing traditional thesis can be the much-needed start of a publishing career for the PhD student and graduate. It can make an immense impact on the emerging author’s career enhancement, and can bring financial, social and personal satisfaction, while its contribution to the author’s CV can be most valuable. One of the greatest faults a PhD graduate can make is not to adapt the traditional thesis into articles immediately after the awarding of his/her degree. This failure, it pains one to say, often stems from the supervisor’s failure to immediately steer the graduate into a further dimension of publishing and research. The Faculty of the university where the student obtained his/her PhD may be equally guilty in not offering support and guidance to the student.36

3.1.2.2.1.2. Guidelines

The rules of how to write accredited-journal articles extracted from the published traditional thesis, are exactly the same as those for how to write accredited-journal articles collected from totally new data to be used in the article-thesis (and even the traditional thesis occasionally). One of the best informative guidelines to be used by the aspirant author, to enable him to reformat and convert the contents of a dissertation or thesis into journal articles, is that of the American Psychological Association (APA), published in 2020. (The APA fully covers the adapting of a dissertation or thesis into a journal article in Section 12.1 of its Publication Manual, Seventh Edition).38

3.1.2.2.2. Publishing of books from the traditional thesis and article-thesis
3.1.2.2.2.1. Overview

As repeated many times in this article, there are just too many pessimists in today’s academic and research setup as to the difficulty of the successful writing and publishing of books based on the traditional thesis and the article-thesis. This pessimism is also displayed as regards the writing and publishing of journal articles based on the published thesis or dissertation. It seems, from the reading of their comments in the academic and research media, that even distinguished professors, supposed to be seasoned researchers and writers, are by their own self-confession, sometimes nothing other than “freshmen” who are functioning academically on an undergraduate level. This may be deduced from their many pessimistic remarks, such as their being easily overwhelmed by a mass of collected data to orderly rework in a publication, their seeming lacking of knowhow on how to systematically approach and to organise a senior research project and their use of multifarious “therapeutics” to get started on their own research projects, instead of confronting the “problem” as wise men immediately and directly with enthusiasm and self-confidence. In some way, as already shown in this article, these “struggles” declared by seasoned academics explain the reason why their students are sometimes less successful researchers and have difficulty in receiving their thesis or dissertation qualifications inside the prescribed time, or fail to rewrite their theses and dissertations into journal articles; and/or  as an extension of their initial research consisting of journal articles, article-thesis and traditional thesis, do not write books immediately after completing their research. Such an “escape flight”, away from the immediate tackling of a research project and the seemingly unnecessary stress created by the inflow of mass data, is well-illustrated by the following mentor, writing in 2016 on guiding the aspirant (but presumably experienced and trained) PhD graduate regarding the adaption of his/her traditional thesis into a journal article. It reads39:1:

After conducting a study, making sense of messy data and so forth, you have to write it all up. In my experience, the most effective way to do that is to create space for long concentration periods. Some universities even provide writing retreats that are excellent opportunities for writing up your study. If your university does not provide such retreats, you can also make your own (or together with a peer). For instance, I wrote the first draft of my first paper during a trip to the United States. The absence of daily distractions determined a creative and effective writing process.

3.1.2.2.2.2. The writing and publishing of books

Approaching the writing of a book, based on an article-format thesis or dissertation, or traditional thesis or dissertation, is exactly the same as the literary construction of the article and traditional thesis or dissertation, with few changes to the original contents and style. The focus is still on the subject of the original study as reflected by the title of the book, while the general construction of each separate article is now offered as a chapter of the book; consecutively with the other articles incorporated in the thesis, it is telling an ongoing story until the last chapter of the book. It still reflects its original elements of construction, such as introduction, literature review, background on and statement of the problem, definition of terms, assumptions, discussion, conclusion, references, etc. In addition, there can also be a closing or final chapter, the offering of a comprehensive conclusion, as well as a future perspective based on the writings of chapters and new outcomes after the writing of the initial articles.

It is almost a prerequisite that the two types of thesis or dissertation be adapted to a book. Looking retrospectively at the lack of many book publications based on the article or traditional thesis, the universities where masters and PhD students graduate, are in large degree to blame for the reason why many masters and PhD graduates, after the day of receiving their degrees, just disappear from the universities’ radar. It seems as if the universities, after the student’s graduation and his/her final payment for his/her studies, immediately lose interest in the student and his/her masters or PhD. Organised efforts to accommodate these studies in official university publications and to promote it to the broad public, does not seem to be a priority or a concern for the top management of universities. Especially, here the universities’ deputy vice-chancellors of Research, as well as the universities’ many directors and deans of research areas, stand directly accused of failed in their duties because they have been specifically appointed to promote and to oversee the absolute outputs of all types of publications at universities  The question left here for us is: are some, if not many of the PhDs awarded by universities, seen as of such poor quality that they do not justify further interest or publication? Specific regarding the quality and standard of PhDs, there should never be the shadow of any doubt cast on them, because each of the mass of PhDs that are annually awarded worldwide is supposed to be an excellent product and something universities should be proud of.

On the need for a thesis or a dissertation to be adapted into a book, Terry Clague of the publishing group Routledge, on the writing and publishing of a book based on an already published article-format or traditional thesis or dissertation, stated in this context in 201740:1: “Research conducted as part of a PhD is valuable. It is valuable for the researcher, who has spent countless hours carrying out the work and it is valuable to those deciding whether the research should result in the award of a PhD qualification. But can the research be valuable to broader audiences? The simple answer is yes – at the heart of many successfully academic books lies research conducted as part of a PhD.”

It is indeed true that the research contents of PhDs offer an array of good outcomes through book publishing for graduates — varying from the exposure and the introduction of it to other university staff, to university libraries (using it as part of their learning material), to the broad public — strengthening their CV, etc. Also, it is forgotten that books, published directly after the traditional theses’ awarding (where there was not an interference by means of the publication of accredited-journal articles as subsidised by the state), also qualify for subsidy if they go through the process of peer reviewing. These subsidies paid in South Africa to universities by the Department of Higher Education and Training (DHET) can amount to the total amount of ten credits (one credit = one accredited article = R120 000). If there are more than ten chapters, a single book may receive a total of R1,2 million in subsidy. (Even books averaging between four to five chapters can generate between R480 000 and R600 000 per book for the universities.) The golden fact that is missed out, is that the publication of books should not be limited to one book per academic/researcher over a career duration of 20 years, but various books: three academic researchers I found had published in 20 years more than 20 books each!

Books are an essential part of the Research Circle of Completeness, but as this series of eight articles shows, it is mostly left unused or ignored by researchers to their own injury. The reality is that it is mainly the academic and research staff that fail in the current research system, not availing themselves of the opportunity to publish many books and generate incomes for the universities, and not the governmental authorities (like the DHET) that go out of their way in creating a favourable environment and compensation system for research by South Africans.1-14

Reflecting back on the failure by most of the university staff of the constant publishing of books, it must be emphasis that one of the main failures for this outcome is the fixation by graduates, academics and researchers to do the “one-by-one occasional article” and their general lack of motivation to do comprehensive research projects that hold the potential to result in either various articles or other research outcomes like books. What strikes one in this respect, is the so-called inclination of “…hier kiep-kiep en daar kiep-kiep (an Afrikaans quotation for fruitless action) of the writing and publishing of an article in one accredited journal, and the writing and publishing of the next article in another accredited journal. This inclination of doing single articles (and then also only mostly occasionally as a research output) seems to be a “research illness” well-internalised in many researchers’ mindsets (Sadly, I find it also to be well-internalised in the mindsets of some directors of research and deans at universities).

A far-more applicable way of doing research is to choose a comprehensive research project from day-one that focusses solely on the writing and publishing in one specific accredited journal all the articles or research contents. Or instead to write the total project contents in a draft manuscript which can be accredited as a published book. These approaches can bring a far better publishing outcome in money and personal satisfaction.

Above negative setting brings us back to the present-day milieu of substandard students and university staff many-times involved in postgraduate programs which needs to be reflected here. It seems as if a great part of the present contingent of academics are, besides their many-times sub-standard training and abilities to deliver acceptable research outputs like accredited journal articles, article-format-theses and accredited books, just not interested in getting involved in active research and the production of accredited journal articles, article-theses and accredited books or comprehensive research projects. This internalised mal-cognition and a habit-formed negative academic and research life-style are further strengthened by the constant arrival of substandard and under-trained cadres through ABCLM/BAREE/WARED into the contemporary university setting, which spells a further down-grading of the South African university that started in 1994. Ask yourself the question: Why would you, if you are paid a good salary every month, be bothered to work extra, like for instance writing articles and books? 62-136

Indeed, we see many times on the television research professors speaking on prominent subjects, but when you check on their CVs for accredited articles, books, etc., they are essentially lacking any significant accredited publications. We also see at the moment the appointment of academics as research professors who took six years to obtain their PhDs (three years outside the maximum period of study), with research records of only six or fewer accredited articles, mostly done with the cooperation (and sometimes exploitation) of their few masters and doctoral students. Then is there the occasional “eminent” lecturer who took 12 years to obtain his/her PhD, seemingly with the assistance of a ghost writer. These types of academics and researchers, that form a strong contingent in present-day universities, know very well how to do the necessary academic speaking, but lack the research practice needed for accredited publications.108

A due diligence done a few years ago by me at a Faculty of a South African university reflected that its ± 35 lecturers were only 6.8 weeks per annum at the office (Note: they were from a face-to-face-learning university and it was before Covid-19 forcing everyone to adopt an overall online system), making it understandable why their article output at that time was essentially zero and their supervised dissertations and theses delivered saturated in rewriting from previous published dissertations and theses. (Recently some of these staff members contacted me to lecture them on the writing of the article-format-thesis and –dissertation essentially because they said it is “too difficult to master” on their own).62-136

The hard fact is that the average university lecturer, after 20 years of work, published (besides his/her own master’s and a PhD) not more than five accredited articles. Reworking it to money value for the university, the end count will be at most R1 080 000. Hereto the average number of articles published by an academic should be normally two to four articles per annum consecutively for 20 years, giving a total end-count of between R4,8-million and R9,6-million.97

It is doubted that above academic and research deviance will easily be phased out in the near future. With the increasing influence of ABCLM/BAREE/WARED this chaotic setting is going to get worse. Furthermore, the present proposed reduction of the universities’ budgets for subsidising and funding of student studies as well as research from 2022, spells doom not only for the writing and publishing of the book but also that of accredited articles and article-format-theses and -dissertations for the period up to 2024.108

3.1.2.2.2.3. Options of book-publishing

On the selection of the style of book publishing, there are various options to choose from. In this context Clague40 guides us40:1:

  • Converting the entire PhD thesis into a book requires that your thesis covers a topic of interest to a large enough audience of scholars. Whereas a thesis starts with a question, a book begins with an answer and communicates its importance in the wider research landscape, tracing its evolution and impact.
  • Using parts of a PhD thesis in a book requires that ongoing and/or collaborative research is being conducted. A book (perhaps co-authored) should be greater than the sum of its constituent parts.
  • Using an aspect of a PhD thesis in an edited book on a broader topic ensures that the research fits with related research on a similar theme. A good edited book addresses the need to broaden the scope of PhD-based research via collaborating with a team of contributors.

The decision on which one of the three options should be chosen, is up to the aspirant author to make. The choice of using an aspect or part of the thesis can have excellent outcomes: especially the collaboration with five or more well-known co-authors as a team, can position the new authors in an excellent way inside academic and research circles, as well as the learned community. It can bring further invitations as members of teams for the writing and publishing of other books. But this positive outcome can also be true when parts of the thesis are being used in a book where other authors of high standing in the academic and research community are also collaborators on the book. Hereto the sole authorship of a book can be equally satisfying, bringing the same exposure as the above two options, while it offers the author much more exclusivity as an independent author and writer.40

3.1.2.2.2.4. Types of publishers
3.1.2.2.2.4.1. Publishing houses

Over the years the publishing of books has been dominated by established publishers, making the opportunities for the individual author and writer to move into self-publishing his/her own book very difficult. Strict selection of the subject of a book, based on popularity with the public to ensure profits for the publishers in their selling of a book, discouraged and excluded many aspirant authors and writers from publishing their PhD theses. However, less popular subjects and information about them appearing in a book — for instance “South Africa’s bedeviled land-ownership (1652 – 2020)41 – have indicated clearly that a limited number of South African academic readers as well as the general public would be interested to read it, or willing to buy the book. The same limitation and lack of interest from publishers might be attributed to a book with the title: “The troubled Afrikaner tribe of South Africa”42, reflecting an in-depth study on the present-day Afrikaner minority’s growing crisis in South Africa under an all-powerful Black majority and an extremely hostile ANC regime, as well as a world audience who is little concerned about the Afrikaners’ situation and fate, who are still seen them as the creators of Apartheid. Either of the above two books — in terms of their limited interest to local academics and researchers, as well as the greater South African society and the bigger world — would from day one turns out to be a money-loser for the publisher if they were published. Their chances of being accepted by most publishers are therefore virtually zero.41,42

This exclusively capitalistic inclination of profit above all else (of course, a good and acceptable business intention/principle for the survival of publishing houses) must be weighed against the value of a book with merit that might be capable of saving lives or bettering politics. However, the tendency by publishers to reject a book as a failure when not “qualifying” in terms of their prerequisites of profitability, is well-illustrated by the following statement of a publisher on its rules and approaches to select or not to select a book for publishing. It reflects, when considered in terms of its exclusively materialistic-guidelines, barely concealed negative attitudes to any author outside the publisher’s circle of reference and interest. It reads40:1-2:

The role of the publisher is to connect authors with readers. When it comes to disseminating research originating from a PhD, this relationship is essential. It is therefore useful to consider the perspective of the publisher when considering what publication route to take. In assessing a proposal for a research-level book, a good publisher [versus a bad writer and author] will initially ask themselves three questions:

  • Is the scope of the research broad enough to be of interest to our readers (scholars globally)?
  • Is the quality sufficiently high?
  • Can the work be developed via feedback from experts as part of the book review process to address any weakness?

Beyond those core questions, potential authors should consider significant and ongoing changes to the market for academic books, notably in reader behaviour. Evolution in digital technology combined with a significant increase in the amounts of available research has led to changes in the way that books are produced, published and propagated. In this environment, the key word is “discoverability”. Connecting authors to readers requires that the publishers facilitate discoverability of research via various routes to ensure that potential readers are able to find books with ease. Authors can aid this process by following a few basic rules of thumb:

  • The main title of the book should position it clearly without reference to other bibliographic information, and should be as short as feasible,
  • Chapter titles should likewise, where possible, position themselves clearly,
  • Chapter synopses or abstracts can be used to enhance the metadata around the books.

In the same context as reflected above, the publisher further revealed the enormous empowerment of the publisher versus the disempowered and much-dependent aspirant authors — and of a stricter kind of “examination” the aspirant authors are facing in his/her trying to publish his/her book(s) through the established publishers than that which they faced during the examination for their PhDs. Here are the publisher’s much-structured selection criteria and strict guideline outlined further, as it states40:2:

Notwithstanding the above, it is useful to start a conversation with an acquisitions/commissioning editor at an early stage towards the end or shortly after the completion of a PhD. Discussions with supervisors and other colleagues are also very useful at this stage. The next natural step is to submit a book proposal which will be considered by the publisher, often involving a peer review process. Research-level books are often published as part of an established series – an awareness of existing books in such series can be useful when it comes to framing and developing a book proposal.

Following a review process, the publisher’s editorial board would give final approval to proceed, following which a book contract would be issued. Armed with publisher and review feedback, the author can proceed to a full manuscript based on their PhD research. Each book is different, but there are numerous key aspects to consider when preparing a final manuscript for book publication:

  • A thesis is written for examiners, a book for scholars in general.
  • Examiners will work through text regardless of writing style, book readers will not.
  • Take a step back — prepare to rethink.
  • Value the reader’s time.
  • Contextualize.

Finally, talking about your research and the process of working it into a book can be an essential ingredient to its success. This can be done with your immediate colleagues, at conferences and with a publisher.

The above outline gives us a clear indication of why the Research-circle of Completeness has stayed incomplete until today, essentially because the prerequisites by many publishing houses to authors, who want to publish their PhDs with them, are just too strict and often outragious. To complete the Research-circle of Completeness and to better the CVs of academics and researchers with their worthy writings transformed into books, other publishing venues must be considered. And they exist.

3.1.2.2.2.4.2. Self-publishers

Firstly, looking critically at the contemporary setup of self-publishing, it seems as if some publishers are years behind in what is going on presently regarding the publishing qualifications obtained and the dynamic approaches applied by aspirant authors to generate their own books: many of these persons are well skilled in the reworking of their PhD materials into applicable formats for publication as books. Secondly, over the last ten years or more there have been ongoing structural changes in the general presentation of academic and research materials and examinations of PhDs, affecting the choice and presentation of titles, abstracts and the traditional examination of theses. Such changes have made the difference between the needs and demands of the examiners for PhDs and the needs and demands of the reader-scholar minimal. Also, regarding the so-called differentiation between how these contents are presented for examiners and how these contents are presented for readers, there is increasingly little difference. In the planning of the amount of the contents to be read, both the examiners and the readers’ time is valued by the graduates-cum-authors, leading thereto that the structures of the book and the thesis are streamlined, making the contents of the two very much the same in terms of being easily readable and informative.  This promotes self-publishing par excellence. A major change has taken place here in that readers’ interests have become much broader than a decade or two ago. In addition, e-book publishing has developed whereby books can be published and offered at minimal cost to the public, even free. This opens unlimited exposure for any PhD graduate to get his/her book out into the market.43-57

What has prominently enhanced the opportunity for self-publishing, is the use of digital technology by authors, assuring themselves an own ISBN number and copyright holding for their books, as well as the necessary technical editing of their books at a nominal cost. In this developing environment of new models of printing-supplier-entrepreneurs, the restrictions of the Covid-19 pandemic have also led to a new self-reliance, independence and autonomy, which is vastly supported by cheap and easily available digital technology. In this context, the traditional publishers with their outdated customs and belief systems and discrimination against authors with excellent books but of limited sales potential, are becoming more and more isolated.43-57

  • Digital Technology

The evolution in digital technology has led to changes in the way that books are produced, published and propagated; not only for the established publishers, but also for the incoming  individual one-person-printer-supplier able to offer inexpensive opportunities to the aspirant author to publish his/her book with an own ISBN number and copyright holding at a minimal cost to the author.43-57

The print run of books can also be controlled by the author, making it possible to limit the issue of his/her book to 10, 20, 1 000 or 10 000 books and thus also to limit the costs of publication. Then there is, apart from the hard-copy issuing of books, also the e-book option, cutting costs to the bone.43-57

The publication of books adapted from PhDs and privately self-published, are undoubtedly going to become a common phenomenon in the next five years. Many aspirant authors are not much interested in earning money from the selling of their books, but more interested to make contact with readers in the community and to get their books out to the general public as cheaply as possible. The immense opportunity that certain self-publishing houses and other book distributors/sellers are offering aspirant authors to market their books broadly and cheaply, may lead thereto that they can publish books at prices between $3 and $10, and even distribute them for free as e-books to readers and scholars.43-57

It is important to note that aspirant authors in many cases do not have to pay any costs upfront or carry any inventory because books are printed on demand when customers purchase them. This saves the author the cost of massive print runs or the need for storage space. Costs are calculated in terms of length of books, versus ink in colour or black. Underneath is a calculator to determine the present costs of a book with publishers such as Amazon and other groups in the USA: For instance, for a book in black ink of 24 to 108 pages the cost per book is $2.15 per book, plus an extra cost of $0.85 per page. For a book in black ink of 110 to 810 pages the cost is $0.85 per book, plus an extra $0.12 per page. On the other hand, the cost for a book in colour ink of 24 to 40 pages is $3.65 plus $0.12 per page, and for a book in colour ink of 42 to 500 pages it is $0.85 plus $0.07 per page. A 300-page book in black ink can thus cost $0.85 plus $3.60 ($0.12 x 300) = $4.45, and a 300-page book in colour ink can thus cost $0.85 plus $ 21.00 ($0.07 x 300) = $21.85. Hereto the Amazon Kindle Direct Publishing platform (KDP) offers books at $2.99-$3.99, while other publishers sell it $2.99 -$9.99.43-57

There are also excellent offers on the market for aspirant authors regarding royalties: for instance, KDP offers two options on earnings for e-Books, namely a 35% royalty if the marketing rights are limited to KDP, while an open contract with KDP offers authors up to 70% royalties (if the e-book is also a physical book that KDP can sell in the broad market). In other cases, the royalties paid by publishers are 60% minus the costs to publish and to market the book. In some cases’ the royalties are 40% when book publishers receive the exclusive distribution rights for a book, while with a limited right awarded to the publisher by the author, the royalty is 25% of the selling price.43-57

A recent cost analysis by myself with a small printing company locally shows that the technical adaptations of PhDs to books, including the registration of an ISBN number, designed front and back covers, printing and binding of ten books of 350 pages, are delivered for instance as a package for under R3,000-00 or R300-00 per book. This is high in terms of the USA-pricing model above, but the limited print run and the author retaining copyright must be noted.

  • ISBN opportunities in promoting self-publications

On the obtention of an ISBN number, is it important to report that these numbers are freely allocated in South Africa to aspirant authors that have already compiled and written manuscripts for books with titles, ready for publication. (Agencies may charge an additional fee.) All that the aspirant authors must do, is to apply and to register their books’ names, their own names, addresses, copyright holder(s), etc., with the National Libraries of South Africa (NLSA). With reference to the famous ISBN number in respect of self-publication, it is important to note firstly that the ISBN number is used to distinguish one title or edition of a title from a specific author from one specific publisher from another. This allows for easier marketing efforts as well as the ability to keep track of book sales through bookshops, libraries, universities, wholesalers and distributors.43-57

In South Africa, should an aspirant author wish to apply for an ISBN, he/she should contact the ISA (International Standard Numbering) Agency, which forms part of the National Library of South Africa. To apply for an ISBN at the National Library of South Africa (NLSA), the aspirant author just has to e-mail his/her personal and manuscript details to Ms Kholofelo Mojela at  Kholofelo.Mojela@nlsa.ac.za/ 58, or he/she can contact the NLSA offices in Pretoria directly on 012 401 9700. SANB information sheets are available free of charge from the SANB, National Library of South Africa Pretoria Campus, PO Box 397, Pretoria 0001, tel. 012 325 5984, e-mail: legal.deposit@nlsa.ac.za/ 59,60

On the Internet there is a mass of information available regarding the costs of printing a book, etc. (See contact addresses in the References).43-61

Since 2007 the ISBN has contained 13 digits, which are divided into 5 segments, separated by a spice or hyphen for easy reading. On the meaning of the International Standard Book Number (ISBN), is it important, as said, to reflect that it is a unique identification number which indicates one publication or edited publication produced by a specific publisher in one of the specific formats: It applies to any single publication in printed, digital or mass-media formats. The ISBN system is administered on an international, national and publisher level, and is standardised to the international standard, ISO2018: information and documentation. Guidance on the ISN and how to apply the number, is provided in the ISP/b/N User’s Manual.61

Physical book formats such as paperbacks must have a unique ISBN number when and where the author intends to sell them through any bookshop or warehouse. This will include books sold online at for instance Create Space and Ingram Sparks.43-61

Digital eBooks will also need an ISBN for the ePub format, should the aspirant author intend for example to publish through the eBook distributors Smash Words, Apple iBook Store or Barnes and Noble. The MOBI version of eBooks sold exclusively on Amazon does not require an ISBN although there is a place to capture it. A general rule is that an ISBN is needed where the author is to profit from book sales, but if the author wants to print limited copies of his/her paperback for close friends and family, an ISBN is not needed.43-61

As mentioned, each ISBN uniquely identifies a format of the author’s book and each of the different formats requires unique ISBNs. These formats are:58-61

  • eBooks (e-Pub only, not needed for MOBI version)
  • Hardbacks
  • Paperback
  • Audiobooks

On the requirements of the amounts of books to send to NLSA after the publication of the books, note the following58-61:

  • E-Books; e-mail the completed eBook files to the legaldeposit@nlsa.ac.za/
  • Print books: If the author prints: a) less than 100 copies, a single copy must be sent to the National Library in Pretoria; b) if more than 100 copies are printed, a single copy of the book should be posted to each of the five legal deposits (in this case the film and video archives are excluded), while if 100 or more copies are printed five copies of the book should be posted to each of the five legal deposits (in this case the film and video archives are excluded).
  • Audio Books. A single copy should be posted to the NLSA in Pretoria while a second copy must be sent to the National Film, Video and Sound Archives (NFA) in Pretoria.
  • Regarding the use of the ISBN number, the aspirant author must note that the ISBN number must be listed on the back cover of the paperback book (printed books) and would need a barcode version of the ISBN number.

Other rules prescribed by the NLSA is that authors can make use of pseudonyms. On the use of ISBNs, the NLSA notes that when a book is published for the first time, it is described as a first edition, and if a book is republished and changes are made to the contents or layout, it is described as a revision or second edition. But if this, the second edition: first impression is reprinted and republished without significant change, the second edition: second impression will result. Hereto, if a work is republished and no changes are made to the contents or format (apart from limited alterations to spelling and corrections of printing errors), it is described as a reprint or a new impression and not a new edition. A change of publisher constitutes a new (first) edition. If a book is revised and changes by at least 20% or more, it requires a new ISBN. (Note: An ISBN can never be reused or reassigned to a new/other book/publication). A different ISBN is needed if a book appears in a different language.58-61

  • Peer-review disposition

Regarding the requirement that books published by established publishers be peer-reviewed to assure quality and standard, it must be noted that all or mostly all the accredited-journal articles used in article-theses, already have been reviewed by three to six reviewers of the journal articles before publication. Furthermore, all the chapters of books as well as the articles extracted from traditional theses may be reviewed by appointed reviewers (mostly seasoned authors of accredited articles, examiners of traditional and article-theses themselves, as well as reviewers of accredited articles with good standing, etc.), making the touted exclusive benefit offered by traditional publishers null and void. On the other hand, there is no limitation in the path of a self-publisher to get his/her book reviewed if he/she does not intend to qualify for the DHET subsidy where applicable. (Note: the academic/researcher who wants his book to be accredited by the university for the payment of the DHET subsidy must have it reviewed by accredited reviewers: but this outcome can be easily affected as described above.)

That the established contingent of publishers is becoming aware of the change in their favoured environment and exclusive establishment of publishing, is evidenced by their exclusive recognition of the situation in favour of self-publishing when they themselves state16:1:

…scholarly communication undergoes changes and evolves as science itself. The scientific article, its format and publication mode, dissemination and sharing has undergone significant changes since the emergence of the first scientific journals in the seventeenth century. The Internet, in the 1990s, dramatically changed the paradigm of science communication, an event comparable only to the invention of printing by Gutenberg in 1440, which enabled the dissemination of articles and journals to other instances, beyond the academy.

It is now up to every individual PhD graduate to grab the opportunity to publish his/her book.

3.1.2.3. A short perspective on African academic publishing

It is not only in South Africa that the publication of books, even accredited articles, is playing a subordinate role in the economic and professional empowerment of academics and researchers; it is a negative phenomenon that characterises most African countries. This setup was well-studied and -described in the University World News by the author Wachira Kigotho 127when he wrote very appositely and with good reason on the 14th January 2021:127:1 “African academics may perish even when they have published.” This negativity revolves around firstly, the lack of justified compensation, promotion and acknowledgement due to academics for their publications by universities as their employers and thus to stimulate publishing by scholars; and secondly, the under-developed and obstructive publishing culture of Africa which fails to contribute to an income for academic writers, essentially because tertiary publishing in general is not profitable for the publishers.127

These two outcomes will shortly be reflected as a closing perspective to provide further insights into the research syndrome which in South Africa, as elsewhere in Africa, is sabotaging the attainment of the Research-circle of Completeness.

Pointing out the lack of deserved incomes and promotions for active African academics writing and publishing [that is also reflected in South Africa and is further aggravated here by the BAREE, WARED and ABCLM] and thus discourages constructive and continued publishing, Professor Ishmael Munene127 of the Northern Arizona University (NAU), USA, speaking from his own Kenyan academic experience, states127:1: “…salary increases should not just be what the unions negotiate but should have a component tied to academic merit as measured in, among others, the publishing of tertiary-level books, journal publications and innovations”.

Kigotho127, on the substandard and under-developed publishing culture of Africa (very much in line with the South African setup as shown in this research) which fails to contribute to an income for publishing academics, writers127:1: “A weak publishing industry in Africa, including the lack of distribution hubs and an intra-African book trade; curricula, pedagogy and learning processes still rooted in the colonial situation and the absence of a scholarship culture, are factors that are undermining the development and production of creative books on the continent.”

The low amounts of tertiary books published in Africa and the low book-publishing output by African scholars in Africa are the direct results of the lack of profits for publishers and thus the unwillingness to support scholars notwithstanding their talent. It is clear that the text-book publishing industry in Africa needs to be reformed in so far as it is applicable to higher education, so that it would entrench creativity, innovation and scholarship, instead of the focus on primary and secondary books that are, because of their constant mass production, excellent money generators. This hostile approach by African publishers has led thereto that African universities are forced to rely heavily on imported books, even for studies with African-specific content such as history, literature, music, politics, sociology and economics, writes Kigotho.127 It is thus understandable why academics and researchers withdraw from publishing and instead do moonlighting and try other avenues for an income, thereby not making publishing a priority.

But, the universities in Africa, also those in South Africa, have themselves failed to publish serious scholarly works or to promote these.127 Solani Ngobeni127 of the Africa Institute of South Africa, in her study: “Scholarly Publishing: The Challenges Facing the African University Press”, said that university presses in Africa are currently only available in Egypt, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Senegal, Zimbabwe and South Africa. But, so far, the university presses of South Africa do not seem to be very active in their support of their scholars.127

Although the practice of the article-format thesis seems to have built a strong foundation in many African countries, it is often for the wrong reason: it seems to be the substandard three-article-thesis which has become the easiest PhD to obtain (with its equally substandard examination). The contaminated use of predatory articles in these PhDs is prominent. On the widespread use of predatory journals to publish in African countries, Wagdy Sawahel132 in the University World News of the 16th March 2021132 points out that it seems to be specifically African countries with a medium level of economic development and saddled with large research sectors, that are the culprits. It seems especially in many North African countries that the research is most susceptible to predatory publishing, specifically in the health, life and physical sciences, with social sciences less affected. Furthermore, it appears that Nigeria is the most affected by the use of predatory journals. Of the top twenty countries in the world, apparently seriously affected by predatory publications, there are nine African countries on the list: Egypt, Libya, Algeria, Morocco, Mauritania, Sudan, Togo, Niger and Liberia. (Thankfully so far South Africa’s name does not appear on the list of the Sub-Saharan countries contaminated by predatory research!).127,132

The contamination by predatory research of the African academy and research, many times allowed by some universities, led thereto that quality had been thrown by the wayside, which caused a dramatic decline in the quality of tertiary teaching and research carried out. This created substandard academics and researchers who failed to publish in accredited journals or to deliver accredited books, forcing them to take shortcuts, such as the use of predatory publishing.  But, to a certain extent, many African universities are direct responsible for this negative outcome themselves, because of their lack of financial support to their authors, academics and researchers to publish in journals of excellence that ask page fees, as well as paying poor salaries to academics/researchers who are required to finance their publications themselves (phenomena that are now also starting to manifest in South Africa). Then of course there is the failure of African universities to publish their scholars work direct themselves. 127,132

From the above negative comments is it in some way clear why the research culture of Africa has so far to a great extent failed to reach the Research-circle of Completeness. But, on the other hand, there are many negative characteristics commonly shared between South Africa and many of the African countries as to the wrong way of doing research and publication that has undoubtedly so far directly contributed to the fact that South Africa could not reach the Research-circle of Completeness.127,132

4. Conclusions

The successful implementation of the Research-circle of Completeness requires from university leaders absolute academic and economic competence, experience and wisdom; totally free from academic and political revenge, subjectivity and delinquency, contradictory to the activities that are now rampaging through our universities more and more.29

The article-format-thesis and -dissertation through its collection of accredited articles, is already at times a dynamic role player within the incomplete-Research-circle of Completeness and has the potential to stimulate immense research status as well as a significant income for universities. Also, through the constant output of accredited articles, it offers the active and brilliant student the opportunity to obtain more than one PhD, as well as the authorship of many books.  If the pre-selection of the postgraduate student is strict, allowing only students of quality into the masters’ or PhD programs, the quadripartite-research model would undoubtedly be the ideal and only format for all students and mostly suitable for all disciplines to do advanced research.16-61

But unfortunately, this article shows that South Africa’s present-day research concentrates prominently on the dual-research model and the tripartite-research model. The absence of the quadripartite-research model is clear; a model in which the writing of journal articles, the writing of books, the doing of research in the milieu of projects and the writing of draft manuscripts occupy a central place.16-61

The present failure to activate the quadripartite-research model and obstructed that the Research-circle of Completeness could so far not be consummated, is captured in a problematic research foundation in which elements, varying from substandard-trained and educated postgraduates to unproductive academic and research staff at universities, as well as the negative impact of contaminated politics, play prominent roles.

The negative reality is that many of our universities and their staff have so far not even embraced and mastered successfully the old dual-research model and the old tripartite-research model in which the traditional thesis occupies the central place, and have failed to turn it, its articles and books, into a stable money-making enterprise. Some of our universities and their staff still seem to be steeped in Gutenberg’s academic culture of the 1400s, when earning an income was seen as a sin, and where the Science of Stupid for years prevented the introduction of the positive butterfly-effect of dynamic and creative research, to such an extent that our research could not in 2021 reach its ultimate excellence.16-61

A dynamic reorientation and reevaluation of the research culture and environment at South African universities are urgently needed. The contaminated policy of ABCLM/BAREE/WARED and the empowerment of the propagandists of the age-old traditional thesis and dissertation that deliberately undermine the incoming of the article-format -thesis and dissertation, needs to be curbed. Only then the article-thesis will make an inroad and the continuation of the incomplete-Research-circle of Completeness erased. 62-141

Above present-day chaos inside the South African research environment and its absence of a true (completed or full) Research-circle of Completeness will be addressed in the next intertwined article (Number 8): “How to consummate the Research-circle of Completeness in South Africa: Part 2”. The discussion of Article 8 specifically will focus on the roles of stonewalling and obstructionism against the establishing of the Research-circle of Completeness in South Africa.

5. References

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