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The blue-eyed devil rapists: An exploration of the discourse on Twitter around land thieves in a South African context

Title: The blue-eyed devil rapists: An exploration of the discourse on Twitter around land thieves in a South African context

Author: Dr. Burgert Senekal, University of the Free State.

Ensovoort, volume 41 (2020), number 7: 1

Abstract

In recent years, anti-white rhetoric has seemingly increased in South Africa, with various researchers and Non-Government Organisations becoming alarmed at the level of antagonism displayed towards whites on social media. This study explores a large dataset consisting of over 18 000 tweets posted by over 10 000 users over a period of 288 days that mention land thieves. It is shown that the term is not only used to refer to South African whites, but also whites in general and Israelis, although almost ¾ of tweets refer to South Africa. Tweets referring to South Africa are explored in more depth, showing that whites are also referred to as rapists and racists, and that various topics, including the Covid-19 epidemic, are reframed in an anti-white discourse on Twitter. In addition, the article shows how prominent black political parties, their leadership and high-ranking public officials, take part in this discourse, with very little corrective action by the South African authorities. Suggestions are also made for further research.

Keywords: land thieves, South Africa, hate speech, Covid-19, social media, Twitter, Afrikaner, land expropriation

Introduction

Apartheid is widely blamed by politicians, commentators, and academics for various contemporary problems in South Africa. For example, contemporary black poverty is frequently attributed to the legacy of apartheid (Lephakga, 2017, Goodman, 2017, and Maseko, et al., 2015). The same applies to the HIV / AIDS epidemic (Nkala-Dlamini, n.d.), unemployment (Republic of South Africa, 2013), racism (Thloloe, 2016), the energy-crisis (Hunter, 2015), violent crime (Gordon, 1998), xenophobic violence (Chengu, 2015), and rape (Armstrong, 1994). Desmond Tutu goes so far as to argue that apartheid is responsible for littering and car accidents (Anonymous, 2011b), while Andile Mngxitama of Black First Land First (BLF) blames storms (Anonymous, 2017a) and cyclones (Anonymous, 2019c) on white people and the legacy of colonialism.

Because the Afrikaner and other white South Africans are associated with apartheid, they also, according to some, are responsible for contemporary problems that are seen as a legacy of apartheid. As John (2019) argues, white South Africans, “have repeatedly failed to self-reflect on their privilege and to apologise fulsomely for their inhumane deeds.” This type of view holds all white South Africans accountable for apartheid, regardless of whether they were born before or after 1994 or had any direct involvement with the National Party (NP) regime or its security forces. Leon (2015) and Cardo (2016) point out the similarities between the contemporary construction of the white man as a scapegoat and what was previously blamed on the Jews. Cardo (2016) writes,

Trapped in a binary, essentialist cast of mind – where black pain and victimhood square off against white domination and privilege – their discourse has already moved from a regressive leftist fringe to the centre of politics. They view whites as aliens, or “1652s” in their jarring parlance; predatory immigrants who might, ultimately, be unassimilable into their new world order.

The current study explores the Twitter discourse around the term land thieves. As such, the study ties in with other studies that have investigated hate speech on social media platforms in South Africa, e.g. Oriola and Kotzé (2020), Ferroggiaro (2019), Oriola and Kotzé (2019a), Oriola and Kotzé (2019b), Kotzé and Senekal (2018), De Smedt, Jaki, Kotzé, Saoud, Gwóźdź, De Pauw, and Daelemans (2018) and Brink and Mulder (2017). However, while Brink and Mulder focus on media reports, Ferroggiaro uses interviews, and Kotzé and co-authors take a quantitative approach that includes machine learning, the current study takes a mixed-methods approach to investigate both the scale and intensity of hate speech directed at the white minority in South Africa. The goal is to explore a Twitter dataset compiled using the word pair (bigram) land thieves and identify some themes and features that could be investigated in more depth in future studies. The article also includes a detailed contextualisation and suggestions for future research.

Background to anti-white hate speech in South Africa

In 2011, Julius Malema, then the leader of the African National Congress (ANC) Youth League, threatened to take over the ANC if they did not adopt a policy of land expropriation without compensation (Anonymous, 2011a). In 2012, ANC Youth Leader Ronald Lamola provoked intense reaction when he said during a speech, “We need an act as forceful as war to bring it [land] back to the Africans” (Foster, 2012). In 2017, Julius Malema, then the leader of the Economic Freedom Fighters (EFF), reiterated during a speech, “The rightful owners of the land are black people. No white person is a rightful owner of the land here in South Africa and the whole of the African continent” (Malone, 2017). Malema also says that he established the EFF in 2013 to drive the policy of land expropriation without compensation, “We took a decision when we were formed in 2013 that our first non-negotiable cardinal pillar is expropriation of land without compensation. So we were not talking elections, we were talking why we formed the EFF” (Nkosi, 2018). Mngxitama, who was a founding member of the Landless People’s Movement in 2001 and later joined the EFF, also places land expropriation at the centre of BLF’s agenda, “I would like to see land occupations becoming a national feature in this country” (Zondi, 2017).

Jacob Zuma’s statements about land expropriation during his term as state president already led to whites preparing for a civil war in 2017 (Malone, 2017). On 28 February 2018, the South African Parliament undertook to reconsider Article 25 of the South African Constitution to allow for the expropriation of property without compensation. The discourse around the land issue centres on white / black identities, the “land thieves” versus the “dispossessed”, and the legacy of apartheid (Roelf, 2018, Mkokeli, 2018, Osborne, 2018, Chung, 2018, Harding, 2018, and Eloff, 2017). Julius Malema for instance remarked, “We must ensure that we restore the dignity of our people without compensating the criminals who stole our land” (Chung, 2018). On 4 December 2018, the South African Parliament voted in favour of the decision to consider the possibility of amending the constitution.

Conversations around land expropriation, in particular, are often accompanied by war talks (Gerber, 2018), and land expropriation is widely seen as a step that could lead to a civil war in South Africa. Roodt (2018) believes land expropriation will lead to a war in SA, and Pieter Groenewald, leader of the Freedom Front Plus, says in parliament, “If anyone in South Africa thinks they can expropriate land without compensation, they live in a dream. Let me put it bluntly, if you want to start a civil war in South Africa, do it. Do it”1 (Anonymous, 2017c). Cope’s President, Mosiuoa Lekota, also says that such a policy will lead to war (Phakgadi, 2018), which is also a statement made by Clem Sunter (Omarjee, 2018), as well as the daughter of Albert Luthuli, Albertina (Javier, 2019).

In recent years, racial tensions have been accompanied by calls for genocide made by militant black leaders such as Julius Malema of the EFF and Andile Mngxitama of BLF. In 2018, for example, Malema said he is not calling on his people to murder white people, “at least for now” (Mahlase, 2018). BLF’s Andile Mngxitama, in turn, made several statements against whites, the best known of which was the 2018 call to kill five whites for every black person who dies (Chabalala, 2018). Bell Pottinger was also contracted by the Guptas in 2016 to instigate a discourse around “white monopoly capital,” which contributed to racial tensions in South Africa (Segal, 2018, Anonymous, 2017b, John, 2017, Cropley, 2017, Withers, 2017, and Cave, 2017). The campaign included the establishment of Twitter accounts that posted more than 220 000 tweets, the establishment of anti-white campaign websites, the use of news agencies ANN7 and The New Age, and the funding of ANC activists (Segal, 2018). Mngxitama of BLF allegedly had financial connections with the controversial Gupta family and Bell Pottinger (Andersen, 2017, Anonymous, 2017b, Claymore, 2017, and Macanda and Cowan, 2017), something supported by Bell Pottinger’s targeting of Johann Rupert (Segal, 2018), which is also one of BLF’s primary targets. The African Network of Centers for Investigative Reporting (2017) also connects Mngxitama with the Guptas, while the US Department of State (2018) calls BLF a “front group formed in 2015 and financed by the prominent Gupta family”.

The EFF and BLF are not alone in targeting white people in their statements. In 2010, the Commando Corps (Afrikaans Kommandokorps) warned the Pan African Congress (PAC) after a call for the full-scale massacre of whites appeared on the PAC’s Facebook page (Jooste, 2010). In addition, Khoza (2017) and Steward (2016) note the increasing amount of hate speech against whites in SA, while a study by the South African Institute of Race Relations found,

… 61% of black respondents now agree that South Africa is a country for blacks rather than whites, while only 38% disagree. This suggests that ANC and EFF rhetoric castigating whites and demanding a major shift in the ownership and management of the economy may be having significant impact on black opinion (Jeffery, 2018).

Brink and Mulder (2017:11) also mention incidents such as then State President Jacob Zuma, who said during the ANC’s 103rd birthday celebrations in Cape Town in 2015 that Jan van Riebeeck’s arrival in South Africa in 1652 was the beginning of all South Africa’s problems. I quote four examples from Brink and Mulder’s report (statements are reproduced verbatim here):

  • Luvuyo Menziwa, senior official of the EFF Student Command and former financial officer of the Student Representative Council (SRC) of the University of Pretoria, wrote on Facebook, “Reasons I hate white people: white privilege, white dominance, white arrogance, white monopoly capital and white superiority. Fuck white people, just get me a bazooka or AK47 so I can do the right thing and kill these demon possessed humans.”
  • Bhefile ka Hlazo, a senior official at the Oudtshoorn municipality wrote on Facebook, “I will with no mercy cut their tongue out with a machete and I will enjoy to hear them begging for forgiveness.”
  • Velaphi Khumalo, a sports promoter in the Gauteng Department of Sport, Arts, Culture and Recreation, wrote on Facebook, “I want to cleans this country of all white people. we must act as Hitler did to the Jews. […] U you have the same venom moss. look at Palestine. noo u must be bushed alive and skinned and your off springs used as garden fertiliser.”
  • Benny Morota, a law professor at the University of South Africa (Unisa), wrote on Facebook, “i dnt entertain white cockroach like yourself . . . i dnt understand why you interfere in my black business … F*ck you pink white murderer . . . Enjoy the blood wealth of our people, your time to pay with your white skin is emmenent.”

All these incidents took place on Facebook, but many of the hostile statements against South African whites are made on Twitter (Oriola and Kotzé, 2019a). Twitter is well-known to be a political platform, as Theocharis, Lowe, Van Deth, and García-Albacete (2015:203) argue,

Twitter’s quick flow of very short and direct messages calling for action can be very important for political activities because tweets can be easily and massively diffused across diverse social networks (and countries), and can attract the attention of previously uninterested and organizationally unaffiliated publics. As previous studies have suggested, these passing short messages may be catalytic in someone’s spontaneous decision to become involved in specific political acts online or offline, lending support to a certain movement.

While no official definition of hate speech exists, “it is hinged on incitement, which is an explicit and deliberate act aimed at discrimination, hostility and violence” (Oriola and Kotzé, 2020:21496). Oriola and Kotzé (2020:21497) define hate speech as, “unfairly discriminatory expression that demonstrates a clear intention to be harmful or to incite harm; promote or propagate hatred against a person or group of persons.” While the current study does not attempt to classify statements as hate speech, this definition should be kept in mind for the examples of tweets that follow.

Two major hate speech incidents took place on Twitter around the land issue in 2019. The first was following an accident at Driehoek High School in Vanderbijlpark where three schoolchildren died (a fourth died in hospital afterwards). Siyanda Dizzy Gumede wrote on Facebook that he had no sympathy for the children (which he assumed were white), as there was now “minus 3 future problems” (Anonymous, 2019a). Lindsay Maasdorp of BLF wrote on Twitter that Gumede was correct, “Why should we frown on the ancestors’ petitions to punish the land thieves including their offspring” (Friedman, 2019). BLF was subsequently reported to the South African Human Rights Commission (SAHRC), but their initial conviction was overturned in the South African High Court and they were not prosecuted (Seleka, 2019, and Cilliers, 2019). Several other users expressed their support for Gumede on Twitter (Greeff, 2019) (these accounts were subsequently deleted), although commentators, both white and black, predominantly condemned Gumede and Maasdorp’s views. John (2019) however, defends these anti-white views,

The Hoërskool Driehoek incident has put a spotlight on unaddressed black anger ensuing from years of apartheid and failure to have authentic conversations about its legacy and impact on black people’s mental health, who are being forced to repress justifiable feelings of anger and pain.

On 14 June 2019, Zindzi Mandela, daughter of Nelson Mandela and South Africa’s current ambassador to Denmark, posted a series of messages on Twitter, including,

“Dear Apartheid Apologists, your time is over. You will not rule again. We do not fear you. Finally #TheLandIsOurs,” “[…] Miss all these trembling white cowards, shem. Botha, Potgieter, Thieving Rapist descendants of Van Riebeeck, etc: how are you my babies?[…]” and “Whilst I wine and dine here ..wondering how the world of shivering land thieves is doing #OurLand.”

The tweets sparked intense reaction on Twitter and in the media, with several political and civil rights organizations demanding her dismissal (Rooi, 2019, and Krige, 2019). On 18 June, the EFF’s Mbuyiseni Ndlozi said in a statement that Zindzi Mandela, “correctly tweeted about the need for black people to get their land back from white land thieves and racists” (Maromo, 2019). BLF also aligned themselves with the EFF in her defence (Mvumvu, 2019). Many black Twitter users continued to support her, including with the hashtag, #HandsOffZindziMandela. In the end, Naledi Pandor, international relations minister, reprimanded Zindzi Mandela (Anonymous, 2019b), but there was no question of legal action or any form of punishment. On the other hand, on 19 June, the ANC indicated that they would file a complaint of crimen injuria against Steve Hofmeyr after he responded to Zindzi Mandela on Twitter the previous day, “Effectively, I AM your boss. You WILL jump when I say so and you WILL ask how high. And when you come to take our livesandland, you WILL die. Our contract is that simple. And don’t you forget it” (Regter, 2019).

The cases around Driehoek High School and Zindzi Mandela are, however, only two incidents that have become well-known; there are many more. Kotzé and Senekal (2018) note a few instances in the Twitter discourse around the Afrikaner town of Orania, for example, “How about we accidentally get our hands on some grenades and start genocide? Orania is a good place to start.”

Brink and Mulder (2017) showed that the ANC government and the SAHRC are extremely slow to act against black South African government officials and political party leaders that call for violence against whites, while whites that make statements deriding blacks are punished swiftly and severely. Black perpetrators usually receive only a warning, while whites such as Penny Sparrow and Vicki Momberg received large fines (and in the case of the latter, was given a jail sentence). Note also that the Driehoek High School and Zindzi Mandela incidents followed the same pattern as identified in Brink and Mulder’s (2017) earlier report, namely that the cases involved a black government official and a leader of a political party, but they were not prosecuted. The ANC however filed charges against Hofmeyr.

Because these incidents only represent the best-known and most publicised cases of inflammatory speech in South Africa, tweets were collected that refer to land thieves in general. The following section outlines the methods used in the current study.

Methods

Tweets containing the word pair (bigram) land thieves were collected from 2019-06-17 (Zindzi Mandela’s controversial tweet was posted three days before on 2019-06-14) until 2020-03-31. This bigram was chosen after various experiments that investigated terms associated with harmful language, and is also one of the terms listed in a recent report on hate speech in South Africa (Ferroggiaro, 2019). This is considered to be a particularly offensive term in the current South African context, as Ferroggiaro (2019:17) remarks, land thieves, “may suggest that white people don’t have a birthright in the Republic of South Africa,” and the term, “demonizes a whole group as criminal and as lacking rights to the land they own.” In other words, the term in effect denies citizenship to the white minority in South Africa and depicts them as criminals. The term has become so commonplace that one user in the current study remarked on 2020-01-01,

In South Africa white people in general are referred to as: Land thieves 1652s Mlungus (scum) Rapists Slave owners Privileged Racists Bad Whiteness This is everyday stuff. We are the only race that is expected to be ashamed of themselves. I say fuck that. #ItsOkayToBeWhite.

Note the terms mlungus and 1652s: while these terms are not investigated in the current study, mlungus is included in the report by Ferroggiaro (2019) and 1652s is mentioned by Cardo (2016). Tweets are currently being collected by the present author that mention 1652s and will be investigated in a future study.

Along with tweets, metadata that was collected include the date and time of posting, usernames (which, for ethical reasons, are not reported in the current study), as well as user locations, number of likes and the number of retweets a tweet received.

In total, 18 031 tweets posted by 10 478 users were collected, of which 6 926 tweets were unique (the rest being retweets). A cursory reading of tweets however showed that not only white South Africans are referred to as land thieves: the bigram is also used to describe Israelis, white Americans, Brazilians and others. In order to determine the extent of the view that white South Africans are considered to be land thieves, tweets first had to be classified according to the country they refer to. A list of keywords was compiled from reading through tweets to classify tweets as referring to a specific country. Sometimes usernames were used to associate a tweet with a country, e.g. South African news agencies (@News24, @jacarandafm, and @BDliveSA) and politicians or political role players (@Natasha9Mazzone, @PresidencyZA, @FloydShivambu, @afriforum, @Lesufi, and @Our_DA). In a small number of cases, the country of the user was used to determine which country he/she was referring to. In total, a list of 382 keywords was compiled that associates tweets with specific countries. Table 1 shows 20 examples of keywords associated with countries.

Table 1 Twenty examples of keywords associated with countries

Keyword

Country

  1. malema

South Africa

  1. effgroundforces

South Africa

  1. blf

South Africa

  1. boer

South Africa

  1. jew

Israel

  1. palestine

Israel

  1. american

United States

  1. zindzi

South Africa

  1. anc

South Africa

  1. riebeeck

South Africa

  1. IDF

Israel

  1. ernstroets

South Africa

  1. zuma

South Africa

  1. israel

Israel

  1. #nhs

United Kingdom

  1. effsouthafrica

South Africa

  1. jerusalem

Israel

  1. ramaphosa

South Africa

  1. mandela

South Africa

  1. wmc

South Africa

Tweets were linked to 23 countries with these keywords, with the majority of tweets (74,89%) referring to South Africa, followed by Israel (7,48%), the United States (4,19%), and Brazil (1,03%). The rest of the countries received less than 1% of tweets. Table 2 shows ten examples of tweets associated with specific countries. Examples are sorted from oldest to newest, and tweets are given here verbatim, as in other examples included in the current article.

Table 2 Ten examples of tweets associated with specific countries

Date

Tweet

Country

2020-01-28

  1. Actually America wasn’t built by immigrants it was built by White supremacists. If you want to compare modern immigrants to the settlers you’re basically saying modern immigrants are genocidal land thieves Lololol nice narrative you got

United States

2020-02-04

  1. #Israel’s skin #cancer rates second highest in the world. #skincancer is nature’s way of saying to Israeli land-thieves you ain’t indigenous to #Palestine #WorldCancerDay2020 #WorldCancerDay #FreePalestine

Israel

2020-03-16

  1. There is nothing special about the Boers they are just land thieves responsible for the forever poverty of Africans

South Africa

2020-03-20

  1. Land thieves and occupiers in a panic #coronavirusuk #CoronaVirusUpdate #COVID19 #coronavirus #FreePalestine RT @user: Israeli settlers increasingly panicked. In one day more than 100 positive settlers of the Corona virus. So far the total number of positive Corona sufferers in Israel has reached more than 433 people and 6 are in critical condition. #Group4Palestine

Israel

2020-03-22

  1. I truely pray that Covid-19 is gentically designed to wipe out the immigrant land thieves mankind killer zionists.

Israel

2020-03-24

  1. Cyril is a puppet for land thieves

South Africa

2020-03-24

  1. Because @realDonaldTrump is just as kak skelm as a boer. Land thieves all of you

South Africa

2020-03-24

  1. Two land thieves who’s parents looted our country have pledged R2 billion and we are applauding. No questions about where the money comes from. Interesting…

South Africa

2020-03-26

  1. Land Thieves from Russia and Eastern Europe

Russia

2020-03-26

  1. Forget our frontline #NHS staff, we need to look after the parasite land-thieves who live in a castle with a gold-plated shitter. You can be sure that ALL other royals have been tested too. #abolishthemonarchy

United Kingdom

Note that tweets 2, 4 and 5 mention land thieves in terms of illnesses in reference to Israel, the latter two referring to the Covid-19 epidemic in 2020. This phenomena of framing an event in terms of land thieves will be returned to later in a South African context. Tweet 8 ties in with this phenomenon: this tweet refers to Johann Rupert and Nicky Oppenheimer donating R2 billion to help with Covid-19 (Head, 2020). As noted earlier, Johann Rupert is often criticised by BLF as an embodiment of “White Monopoly Capital”, the phrase marketed by Bell Pottinger. Tweet 10 in turn uses Covid-19 to criticise the British royalty.

Some tweets could not be associated with specific countries. Table 3 shows examples of tweets that do not clearly associate the tweet with a specific country. Tweets are sorted from oldest to newest tweet.

Table 3 Five examples of tweets that could not be associated clearly with a specific country

Date

Tweet

2019-08-14

  1. Land thieves are savages. A savage will never agree to take responsibility for it’s larceny, it’s plunder and murder. That’s why they are called savages.

2020-03-03

  1. U r land thieves, murderers and imbeciles who fk up ecosystems, then try to grow fake food….

2020-03-08

  1. ‘Settlers’ is a soft word for ‘land thieves’

2020-03-27

  1. Land thieves 😂😂😂😂#Twitter30Seconds

2020-03-28

  1. Typical land thieves

After reading the context of Tweet 1, it became apparent that the user probably intended the term land thieves to denote all white people, regardless of in which country they reside. Although this tweet would include South Africa, it was excluded in the analysis for not specifically referring to South Africa. Ultimately, 1 776 tweets (9,85% of tweets), could not be associated with a specific country.

In total, 13 504 tweets (74,89% of the total number of tweets) are associated with South Africa, along with 7 333 users (69,89% of the total number of users), and 4 439 unique tweets (64,09% of the total number of unique tweets). This shows that the bigram land thieves is overwhelmingly associated with South Africa, with almost ¾ of tweets referring to South Africa. At the same time, not all references to land thieves refer to South Africa, with Israelis also being accused of being land thieves in a substantial number of tweets (7,48%). This association is interesting, given that the word apartheid is used so often in the context of Israel that it could not be used here as a keyword to link tweets to South Africa.

Results

Tweets were placed at an average of 62,61 tweets per day over the 288-day period considered here (2019-06-17 to 2020-03-31), but tweets referring to South Africa were placed at an average of 46,89 tweets per day. For all tweets, users mentioned land thieves at a rate of 1,72 tweets per user, but for South African tweets, the rate is 1,84. This shows a larger commitment on the part of users referring to South African land issues than for others; note also that while almost 75% of tweets refer to South Africa, only 70% of users refer to South Africa. This means that users referring to land thieves in a South African context are more inclined to mention the term more than once than is the case for users referring to land thieves in other contexts.

The most retweeted tweet in the total dataset (retweeted 1 081 times) was posted shortly after Zindzi Mandela’s abovementioned tweets, and reads, “Retweet To Annoy Land Thieves ✊🏾 ✊🏾 ✊🏾#HandsOffZindziMandela.” In addition, the second most retweeted tweet in the total dataset (retweeted 453 times) is an official EFF rendition of this tweet, “@Effgroundforces: Retweet just to annoy land thieves and ANC empty heads #SONADebate.” Since retweets are usually an indication that users endorse a tweet (Shin, et al., 2016:1218, and Bruns and Burgess, 2012:803), this shows the extent to which the land-thieves narrative has taken hold in South Africa. Table 4 shows the tweets that refer to South Africa that were retweeted the most. Usernames are only included if they refer to major political figures or political parties.

Table 4 The ten most retweeted South African tweets

Tweet

Retweet Count

  1. Retweet To Annoy Land Thieves ✊🏾 ✊🏾 ✊🏾#HandsOffZindziMandela

1081

  1. @Effgroundforces: Retweet just to annoy land thieves and ANC empty heads #SONADebate

453

  1. Leadership BLF for Life that is me and BLF President Andile Mngxitama told Land thieves to go Holland where they belongs too, viva BLF viva Azania Izwe Lethu ✋✊

344

  1. Consistency!!! the message haven’t changed so there is no flip flopping 👇 this gospel was preached in the ANC until the house negro party expelled our leaders because they are protecting land thieves #TheLandIsOurs.

263

  1. The president of South Africa calling my forefathers land thieves and celebrating the Zulu warriors that attacked them without cause. The Rainbow nation is a myth We are not the same We are not stronger together F Ramaphosa F the ANC #OnsLand #Geloftedag #SouthAfrica #WeAre1652

217

  1. Such obviously foolish policy!!! Why encourage people to “donate” stolen land? Asking land thieves to donate it’s like they are making us a favor for returning the land.

195

  1. Malema accuses all white people of being murderers, rapists and land thieves. No social media or MSM coverage. The one MSM outlet that decided to cover it makes the focus of the article Helen Zille. You can’t make this shit up. Share my video far and wide:

179

  1. As if this wasn’t enough. No white racist will bully Sis Zindzi and get away with it. Not on our watch If there’s anyone to win this fight it is us, the African people of SA. The land is ours and will be expropriated without compensation The land thieves mustn’t bore us. Enough

159

  1. How are the Van Zyls different from the Guptas in as far as State Capture is consent? [20 Marks] NB: The Van Zyls are one of the most notorious Land thieves in the Country

157

  1. “I’m not Zuma fan but….” Each time a sentence starts like that, you must know that reality has hit home and a native is fast realizing that he/was played by land thieves to hate @PresJGZuma for nothing. Mr Zuma remains the only President of Native Africans in South Africa.

157

While tweets 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, and 10 reinforce the narrative that South African whites are land thieves, tweets 5 and 7 oppose this narrative. The current study does not differentiate between tweets that are supportive or unsupportive of the narrative that whites are land thieves, because the goal is to determine the extent to which this narrative has taken hold and even tweets that deny this narrative acknowledge its existence. In other words, a user that claims that he is not a land thief admits to the existence of the narrative just as much as a user that accuses others of being land thieves. Future studies could however classify tweets as supportive of this narrative or not. Nevertheless, the examples in Table 4 show that tweets are overwhelmingly supportive of the narrative that whites are land thieves.

While the most retweeted tweets show how Twitter is used to reinforce and promote the narrative that whites are land thieves, even by an official account of the EFF, numerous other tweets phrase the issue in stronger terms that could be classified as hate speech with the abovementioned definition by Oriola and Kotzé (2020:21497). Table 5 provides ten examples of such tweets. The table is again sorted from oldest to newest tweet, and tweets are again reproduced verbatim.

Table 5 Ten examples of strongly-worded tweets

Date

Tweet

2019-07-16

  1. Rapists, murders, land thieves, devils, Satan’s, racists, blue green eyes, connivers etc arrived in this ships, Dromedaries, Goede hoop and Heldekruin

2019-08-16

  1. As a child of land thieves and a direct beneficiary of apartheid, you have a right to shut your white whole and continue benefiting in the name of our forefathers bloodshed

2020-01-04

  1. Christians like this one are plain stupid bcs they take everything in the Bible they did not write as a gospel truth irrespective of what they know from our history that this Christianity shit was used to brainwash us by land thieves and invaders of our land.

2020-01-19

  1. Actually the only reason SAA should fly to Britain is extradition of White Land Thieves back home, Afrika would be helping the Brixit call

2020-01-25

  1. Is this how we going to get the land back. Dead land thieves tend to leave the stolen land with their elderly desperate widows😂🤣😂

2020-02-06

  1. The Sun burning the hell of pinkish remnant of land thieves 😩😩😩

2020-02-27

  1. Whether you like or not, we getting our land back. Land thieves nearthendals are emboldened by the useless constitution. The enemy of Africans, Asians, Arabs, Latinos, Native Indians is nearthendals aka the devil(pale people).

2020-03-01

  1. And that’s all that surprises you. I agree they should have.. with the intended passengers inside.. Actually I wish it was 1652 not 1952 and they burnt those ships carrying scurvy infested land thieves and rapists… then we would not have you tweeting crap.

2020-03-05

  1. Voetsek bloody filthy pinkish PIG…Land Thieves

2020-03-08

  1. No worries. UKZN students who have been given a life line by #Duduzane who is hated by White Land Thieves for being Black #Zuma. From now please don’t allow Van Riebeeck Descendants who arrived, raped n Killed blacks for their land to Tell u who u should like or hate RT @user: user Can Duduzane speak Zulu?

These tweets show a more overtly hostile attitude towards whites than the examples in Table 4: calling whites “devils” (Tweets 1 and 7), denying them a right to voice an opinion (Tweet 2 and 10), attacking Christianity (Tweet 3), asking for whites’ deportation (Tweet 4), threatening to kill white farmers and implying a worse fate for their widows (Tweet 5, and note the laughing emoticons), and calling whites other names such as “pink” (Tweet 6 and 9) and “Neanderthals” (Tweet 7) (while the user had difficulty spelling this word, I assume he/she meant “Neanderthals”). Indeed, while Tweet 1 refers to whites as “devils”, Tweet 7 calls whites “the devil” (emphasis added). Note also how Tweet 7 expands the vilification of whites to include all whites globally: Tweet 1 in Table 3 showed a similar attitude, and indeed the occurrence of the bigram land thieves with reference to many countries shows an association between South African and American whites, as well as with Israelis.

Also note the use of the term racists (Tweet 1): this term has become synonymous with whites and serves a similar function as rapists by depicting whites as evil. In addition, the use of rapists when describing land thieves (Tweets 1, 8 and 10) is particularly noteworthy; 662 of these tweets (4,9% of tweets referring to South Africa) explicitly mention that whites are considered to be rapists, and bear in mind that Zindzi Mandela’s abovementioned controversial tweets also call land thieves “rapists.”2 Table 6 provides ten additional examples of South African tweets that claim that land thieves are rapists.

Table 6 Ten examples of South African tweets that call “land thieves” rapists

Date

Tweet

2020-01-15

  1. Khabazela you have no obligation to be responding to these land thieves, rapists, killers, liars etc. John 10:10 KJV — The thief cometh not, but for to steal, and to kill, and to destroy: It’s a useless exercise.

2020-01-19

  1. Who stole VBS money? Now we are dealing with land thieves. We are taking back stolen land by murderers and rapists, using the powerful freedom charter. And you were part of the system that stole our land which makes you guilty of the fore mentioned things. Bloody thief

2020-01-24

  1. Unrepentant people must not be celebrated. Proud, racists, land thieves, rapists and killers cannot be celebrated eventhough they developed where they were living

2020-01-28

  1. If this is you line of argument, then it goes without saying that ALL WHITE SETTLERS here in SA are land thieves, murderers, rapist… for what their forefathers did…

2020-02-08

  1. Never ever in my life I will do that… Just ask yourself about the offsprings of the rapist Jan Van Riebeeck like @user who has been in Africa from birth but he is still unable to read or write any African language. What does that tells you, wow these land thieves are filthy

2020-02-14

  1. Ag you 😡what’s worse evil than what you did you murderers, rapists, land thieves and mineral looters? RT @user: @user DF Malan,HF Verwoerd,BJ Vorster, PW Botha were evil but pale in comparison with T Mbeki, Zuma.Stealing from poor, way worse.

2020-02-17

  1. A product of land thieves, rapists and murderers is talking about a “credibility gap”…Wow!!!

2020-02-22

  1. I ain’t got time for colonizers, land thieves, invaders, rapists like yourself

2020-02-25

  1. No, it’s Apartheid Sympathisers like you who, refuse to acknowledge nor even admit the damage done by the apartheid system… Ofcoz u’r still a beneficiary of that system, so why would u…. Murderous, rapists and land thieves. Would never wanna admit to such crimes

2020-03-06

  1. Look at the descendant of land thieves, mass murderers and serial rapists threatening a Black man while he hides behind a keyboard. You’d never say that to his face, coward. 🤫

Various topics are framed within the discourse on the land issue, even though these topics may initially seem unrelated to it. For instance, on Women’s Day (9 August 2019), a user tweeted, “While many people celebrate Women’s Day, we celebrate the Land of our forefathers that we fought for and took from white racist settlers. Happy LAND day to all those who contributed to the fight for the return of our land from the Land thieves.” Note again how the user calls whites racists. On 16 December 2019, another user tweeted, “On this day settlers celebrated their victory kwimpi yase Ncoma (The battle of blood river) more than 3000 of King Dingane loyal soldiers we slaughtered by gun wielding land thieves…..qubekani celebrate with them.” Another user reacts to an advertisement for a company in the following way (the company’s name and number were redacted for ethical reasons),

WOW u really make me laugh after the stress I get fro this land thieves,This is a joke of the year I believe? RT @user: We eat leftovers including alcohol at the weddings, burials, Baby Showers, and birthday parties. If you need us, please contact [number]. [company name]. Thanks! TandC’s apply.

With Covid-19 resulting in the lockdown of many countries worldwide in March 2020, the epidemic was also framed within the discourse on land thieves. Table 7 provides some examples of tweets referring to South Africa that frame the land issue in a Covid-19 context. The table is again sorted from oldest to newest tweet. One username is included in Table 7 (see below).

Table 7 Ten examples of South African tweets framing the land issue in the context of Covid-19

Date

Tweet

2020-03-13

  1. Modimo o mogolo, this virus is for the Land Thieves.

2020-03-13

  1. Dear Ancestors Thank you for sparing us from this evil virus. We appreciate that the land thieves are suffering from their evil deeds. We are very thankful to the rivers and mountains which they have fenced off. Die bo fuckingi

2020-03-13

  1. Corona virus must visit all SA land thieves. I think “stolen land expropriation with zero cents shall be easy.

2020-03-15

  1. Land thieves brought COVID19 in our beautiful Azania ,may the good ancestors wipe them all with this corona virus,so that will retain our land with less energy

2020-03-16

  1. Africans are at work while the land thieves are busy buying everything of the shelves , while its them who bought this virus from their European homes

2020-03-17

  1. @ZaneleLwana: Any black person affected by the deliberate spread of Corona Virus I wish for you speedy recovery and strength to those you know who have been hit by this pandemic. As for land thieves the message is clear really, I don’t really care. For so long the poor pays for your selfishness.

2020-03-17

  1. The open border policy is all about Africans States not European thugs like Italians who will just enter African territory just to spread Corona Virus undetected like now.. Remember Corona Virus was brought in Africa by you Land Thieves

2020-03-22

  1. EFF STUDENT COMMAND STATEMENT ON THE COMMEMORATION OF HUMANS RIGHT AMIDST COVID19 OUTBREAK. 21 March 2020. The COVID19 outbreak reminds us of the parasitic condition African people were subjected to because of foreign land thieves.

2020-03-22

  1. We will die with the pinks. None is immune, no land thieves, or pink monopoly racist capitalist has a better chance. We are all the same now. Actually for now it seems worse for the pinks infact. RT @user: It gives me comfort to know that even though this virus was created by the evil white race to attack other races, they themselves are not immune to it. And we will die with as many of them this time unlike their HIV that could only spread through sex mainly. #CoronaVirusUpdate

2020-03-27

  1. The defenders of land thieves RT @News24: Coronavirus in SA: ACDP’s #KennethMeshoe and #SteveSwart test positive

Note how these tweets echo the sentiments around Driehoek High School in that the users often rejoice in the suffering of others (Tweets 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9). Refer however to Tweet 5 in Table 2 above, which shows that the phenomenon is not confined to the South African discourse and others also rejoice in the suffering of Israelis during this epidemic. Tweets 4, 5, and 7 blame the epidemic on white land thieves, while Tweet 9 again calls whites pinks and racists, as highlighted in Table 5 as well. While usernames for most of these tweets are not included in the above table for ethical reasons, it should also be noted that Tweet 6 was posted by Zanele Lwana, the Deputy President of BLF, and Tweet 8 is from an official EFF account. In the case of Tweet 6, the indifference towards whites is explicit, while the reader should note the statement in Tweet 8 that refers to the “parasitic” relationship between “land thieves” and “African peoples”.

The above examples show a clear demonization of white South Africans as racists, rapists, land thieves, and devils. With 13 504 tweets (including retweets) and 7 333 users involved in this discourse, and a subset of 662 tweets calling whites rapists, the issue is far from insignificant. Add to that the fact that some of these tweets are official political party communications by the EFF and BLF, and that the South African ambassador to Denmark, Zindzi Mandela, tweeted the same content, it is clear that this topic warrants further study and political action, as discussed in the following section.

Limitations and future avenues of research

This article constitutes a first exploration of a dataset of tweets mentioning land thieves, and a number of limitations should be noted.

No attempt was made here to classify tweets as hate speech. Future studies could investigate the extent to which hate speech occurs and use the current dataset along with e.g. the method proposed by Oriola and Kotzé (2020) to evaluate the extent of hate speech around this topic. The author will make the dataset available upon enquiry.

Secondly, the current study only analysed tweets over a relatively short period (288 days), and future studies could investigate the use of land thieves over a longer period. It would for instance be informative to compare the number of tweets mentioning land thieves to the timeline of the Bell Pottinger campaign, which used social media to promote a discourse around “white monopoly capital” in order to divert attention away from the investigation into state capture by Jacob Zuma and the Guptas (The African Network of Centers for Investigative Reporting, 2017). Given the earlier-stated connection between Zuma, Bell Pottinger, the Guptas and BLF, my hypothesis is that the bigram land thieves became more prominent in 2016 during the Bell Pottinger campaign. A future study could investigate whether this is the case.

The current study is also not a comprehensive study of hate speech in South Africa. Future studies could investigate the occurrence of the term 1652s and the terms listed in Ferroggiaro (2019).

While this study started as an exploration of inflammatory speech towards whites in South Africa, one of the interesting findings has been that the same bigram used to vilify whites is used for anti-Semitic speech. Future studies could investigate the anti-Semitic component of this discourse.

Furthermore, no study of hate speech in South Africa aids in avoiding conflict or bettering race relations as long as the ANC-led South African government lacks the political will to prosecute black perpetrators. The report by Brink and Mulder (2017), along with the fact that many statements mentioned in the current study, including tweets considered here, are made by leaders of black political parties (such as the EFF and BLF), create a sense that only white perpetrators are prosecuted, while black perpetrators are condoned. Although Zindzi Mandela’s tweets fall outside the time period considered here, her tweets are evidently typical of tweets around land thieves, e.g. by referring to land thieves as rapists. No action was taken against her, despite the fact that she is a serving ambassador and hence a high-ranking public official with authority and a large number of followers. As one user tweeted in the current study (tweet posted on 2019-06-30),

Just hang on a sec. So it’s OK for blacks to call me and my ancestors rapists and land thieves but I go to jail if I call them a kafir. Are they for real. What a bunch of snowflakes. No wonder they spend their lives suffering and murdering and raping each other. RT @user: And yet racist chants and anti white threats go unpunished in SA. If you are white and say a naughty word…you will end up in jail. It’s ludicrous!

This perception that the law applies differently to people of different races is phrased explicitly in the official Shimla Park report (Van der Westhuizen, et al., 2016:76), which investigated the racial tensions at the University of the Free State in February 2016,

In the Panel’s view the remarks about “white bastards”, as well as “racism” and “racists” (like Penny Sparrow and Gareth Cliff) that must “literally fall” and go to the “grave”, do not amount to hate speech, or constitutionally unprotected speech in terms of section 16 of the Constitution. It might of course well be hate speech if a white person makes the same remarks about black people, given South Africa’s apartheid history. Given the context of the remarks, the anger is understandable and the figurative meaning is clear.

Unless political pressure is applied on the ANC, SAHRC and the South African courts to apply the law consistently, studies of hate speech in South Africa will achieve very little.

Conclusion

This study explored a large Twitter dataset collected using the bigram land thieves. It was shown that the occurrence of this bigram is not limited to South Africa, although around 75% of global tweets refer to South Africa. It was also shown how, in addition to calling white South Africans land thieves, they are also frequently called rapists and other derogatory epithets. In addition, it was also shown how various topics become framed in the discourse on land thieves, such as the Covid-19 epidemic. Various suggestions were also made for future research.

The most disconcerting issue highlighted in the current study is the level of vilification directed towards South African whites by black political parties and high-ranking public officials, as well as by their supporters, and the fact that such vilification goes unpunished by the South African authorities. In the wake of Nazi propaganda against the Jews prior to and during World War II, it should be seen as a clear red light when a majority uses its power to vilify a minority.

Footnotes

1 Own translation from the original Afrikaans, “As enige iemand in Suid Afrika dink dat hulle die grond kan onteien sonder vergoeding, leef hulle in ‘n droom. Laat ek dit volmondig stel, as jy ’n burgeroorlog in Suid-Afrika wil begin, doen dit. Doen dit.”

2 This phenomenon is not limited to the South African discourse. With reference to the United States, one tweet (posted on 2020-02-13) reads, “#Breaking #NewConstitution every single “Founding Father” was a human rights criminal abductors and rapists of women; human traffickers; murderers; land thieves their words of “democracy” were a joke it needs to be replaced by the enlightened youth of today.”

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Ras en Afrikaneretnisiteit: ʼn Kwantitatiewe ondersoek na huidige opvattinge

Dr. Burgert Senekal, Universiteit van die Vrystaat.

Abstract

A lot has been written about whether the Afrikaner is white or of mixed origins. The current study uses big-data methods to investigate what the dominant idea currently is: is the Afrikaner considered to be white? For this all tweets over a period of five months were collected in which the word “afrikaner” occurs, relevant tweets are identified and accessed. By considering the 23 832 tweets published by 14 119 users, it is indicated that more than 99% of users that mentioned race, also mentioned that Afrikaners were white. In addition, it is indicated that more than 41% of users considered race a facet of the Afrikaner’s ethnicity, allowing us to conclude that race is seen as an important component of being an Afrikaner. Suggestions for further research are also made.

Keywords: Afrikaner, Twitter, race, ethnicity, apartheid

Opsomming

Daar is reeds baie geskryf oor of die Afrikaner wit is of ʼn gemengde herkoms het. Die huidige studie gebruik grootdatametodes om ondersoek in te stel na wat die heersende opvatting tans is: word die Afrikaner as wit geag? Hiervoor word alle twiets vanaf Twitter oor ʼn tydperk van vyf maande versamel waarin die woord “afrikaner” voorkom, relevante twiets word geïdentifiseer en word onttrek. Met inagneming van 23 832 twiets wat deur 14 119 gebruikers geplaas is, word aangetoon dat meer as 99% van gebruikers wat ras noem, ook noem dat hulle die Afrikaner as wit ag. Boonop word aangedui dat meer as 41% van die gebruikers ras as ʼn faset van die Afrikaner se etnisiteit noem, wat aandui dat ras gesien word as ʼn belangrike komponent van Afrikanerwees. Voorstelle vir verdere navorsing word ook gemaak.

Kernwoorde: Afrikaner, Twitter, ras, etnisiteit, apartheid

Ensovoort, jaargang 40 (2019), nommer 8: 1

Ras en Afrikaneretnisiteit: ʼn Kwantitatiewe ondersoek na huidige opvattinge

Inhoud

1. Inleiding

2. ʼn Agtergrond van ras, etnisiteit en die Afrikaner

3. Metodes

4. Resultate

5. Gevolgtrekking

 6. Verwysings

7. Addendum 1: Ras duidelik gespesifiseer

8. Addendum 2: Ras nie gespesifiseer nie

1. Inleiding

Die Afrikaner het dwarsdeur 2018 intensiewe ondersoek ondergaan. Die eerste groot gebeurtenis het vroeg in Januarie by Hoërskool Overvaal plaasgevind toe dié skool van rassisme beskuldig is na hulle nie leerlinge wou plaas wat nie Afrikaans magtig is nie (Mitchley, 2018). Grootskaalse betogings deur die Economic Freedom Fighters (EFF) en die African National Congress (ANC) het gevolg, maar uiteindelik het die hof bevind dat die skool nie aan rassisme skuldig was nie (Masinga, 2018).

ʼn Ander groot gebeurtenis het op 28 Februarie plaasgevind toe die Parlement onderneem het om Artikel 25 van die Suid-Afrikaanse grondwet te heroorweeg om die onteiening van eiendom sonder vergoeding te bemiddel. Die diskoers sentreer rondom wit/swart identiteite, dié wat het teenoor dié wat nie het nie, die bevoorregtes teenoor die minderbevoorregtes, die gronddiewe teenoor die onteiendes en die nalatenskap van apartheid – die Afrikaner se oorheersing van die Suid-Afrikaanse politiek van 1948 tot 1994 ((Roelf, 2018) (Mkokeli, 2018) (Osborne, 2018) (Chung, 2018) (Eloff, 2017)). Julius Malema het byvoorbeeld opgemerk: “We must ensure that we restore the dignity of our people without compensating the criminals who stole our land” (Chung, 2018). Op 4 Desember het die Parlement ten gunste van die besluit gestem om die moontlikheid te oorweeg om die grondwet te wysig. Uiteindelik het “onteiening sonder vergoeding” Suid-Afrika se woord van die jaar geword ((Grobler, 2018) (Sekhotho, 2018)).

Saam met die grondkwessie het Afrikaners ook opskrifte gemaak deur talle voorvalle van rassisme en beweerde rassisme. Een van die episodes was die vonnisoplegging van Vicky Momberg vir crimen injuria op 28 Maart nadat sy rassistiese taal gebruik het ((Pijoos, 2018) (Fihlani, 2018) (Ritchie, 2018)). Ná ‘n paar ander voorvalle het die jaar met bewerings van rassisme by Clifton strand geëindig, waarna ‘n skaap opgeoffer is om die strand van rassisme te reinig ((Nombembe, 2018) (Chambers, 2019)).

ʼn Verdere kwessie wat die Afrikaner in die kollig gebring het, was plaasaanvalle. In Mei 2018 het die Afrikaner burgerregte-groep, AfriForum, die VSA besoek om ondersteuning vir die Afrikaner se lot te verkry ((Kriel, 2018) (Du Toit, 2018) (Rademeyer, 2018)). Joernaliste soos Lauren Southern en Katie Hopkins het dokumentêre films gemaak oor plaasaanvalle en die Afrikaner se posisie in Suid-Afrika. Uiteindelik het hierdie media-blootstelling gelei tot ‘n diplomatieke voorval tussen eers die ANC-regering en Australië nadat Peter Dutton, Australië se Minister van Binnelandse Sake, verklaar het dat wit boere in Australië verwelkom moet word ((Gous, 2018) (Killalea, 2018)), en toe tussen die ANC en die VSA (Steinhauser, 2018) nadat die Amerikaanse president, Donald Trump, getwiet het: “I have asked Secretary of State @SecPompeo to closely study the South Africa land and farm seizures and expropriations and the large scale killing of farmers”.

Maar wie is die Afrikaner? Daar is reeds ʼn groot hoeveelheid oor hierdie vraagstuk geskryf, maar die huidige studie gebruik grootdatametodes om ondersoek in te stel na watse persepsies daar tans rondom hierdie vraagstuk bestaan. Hiervoor word gebruik gemaak van Twitter, ʼn sosiale media platform wat dit moontlik maak om ʼn groot hoeveelheid mense se opinies te ontleed en só ʼn beter idee te verkry oor watse algemene persepsies daar by mense bestaan. Die vraag wat gevra word, is: word die Afrikaner oor die algemeen as wit geag? Met ander woorde: Is ras ʼn integrale komponent van Afrikanerwees?

2. ʼn Agtergrond van ras, etnisiteit en die Afrikaner

Collins (2004, p. 13) herinner dat die terme ras en etnisiteit swak gedefinieer is: “Both terms carry complex connotations that reflect culture, history, socioeconomics and political status, as well as a variably important connection to ancestral geographic origins.” Boonop word die terme gereeld afwisselend gebruik, soos byvoorbeeld in Guerrero, et al. (2018), Ailawadhi, et al. (2018), Morisaki, et al. (2017), Jorgenson, et al. (2017) en Ginther, et al. (2011), of verskillend gedefinieer ((Bartlett, 2001, p. 39) (Markus, 2008, p. 653)).

In beide ras- as etnisiteitsbeskrywings is daar ʼn self-etikettering en ʼn etikettering van buite teenwoordig (Buys, 2013): die individu identifiseer homself as behorend tot ʼn spesifieke groep en word oor die algemeen ook as sulks beskou. Bartlett (2001, p. 40) skryf: “Ethnic identity results from a process of labelling (identification). This may be self-labelling, but labelling by others is also involved, since ethnic identity may be contested.” Hy herinner aan Jode wat hulself tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog as Duitsers geag het, maar dat die etikettering van buite deurslaggewend was.

Markus (2008, p. 655) is van mening dat ras en etnisiteit geskep word en nie intrinsieke eienskappe van die individu is nie: “Defining race and ethnicity highlights two critical features of both phenomena – other people create them, and they are not biologically based ‘things’ that people ‘have’.” Elders stel Markus haar siening dat ras nie intrinsiek is nie, nog duideliker: “research studies repeatedly show that race and ethnicity are not biologically based” (Markus, 2008, p. 657). Dit is belangrik om Markus (2008) se siening dat ras-gebaseerde identiteit van buite opgelê word in gedagte te hou: Met die implementering van die Bevolkingsregistrasiewet van 1950 in Suid-Afrika is daar byvoorbeeld ʼn onderskeid tussen rasse getref op grond van hoe hulle “oor die algemeen” gesien word ((Zuberi, et al., 2015, pp. 12-13) (Unie van Suid-Afrika, 1950)), met ander woorde hoe hulle van buite beskou word. Die Wet lui byvoorbeeld: “The Governor-General may by proclamation in the Gazette prescribe and define the ethnic or other groups into which coloured persons and natives shall be classified in terms of sub-section (1)” (Unie van Suid-Afrika, 1950).

Indien ras en etnisiteit van buite opgelê word, beteken dit noodwendig dat daar geen intrinsieke kenmerke is wat ʼn persoon tot groep A of B kan klassifiseer nie? Genetiese variasie kan wel gebruik word om ʼn persoon se geografiese herkoms na te spoor ((Rosenberg, et al., 2002) (Greeff, 2007)), wat beteken dat daar tog ʼn biologiese verbintenis tussen ras en etnisiteit is (wat Markus se definisie van etnisiteit hieronder erken), alhoewel dit soms vertroebel is deur die vermenging van bevolkings (Collins, 2004, p. 13). Bartlett (2001, p. 41) skryf:

… there is genetic and biological variation between human groups. Much of this is invisible, but some is highly visible: color of skin, shape of eye, type of hair. These biological differences do not themselves constitute race or ethnicity but are part of the raw materials from which race or ethnicity can be constructed—along with language, religion, political allegiance, economic position, and so on. The significance attached to visible genetic markers varies from society to society—the difference between the meaning of skin color in Brazil and in the Old South being a locus classicus in discussion of such issues.

Kortom: daar bestaan biologiese verskille, maar tot hoe ʼn mate dit bepalend is vir etnisiteit, hang af van die gemeenskap wat kategorieë neerlê. In Suid-Afrika het Heese (1984) en ander byvoorbeeld aangedui dat daar beduidende genetiese vermenging met ander rasse onder Afrikaners bestaan (kyk verderaan), maar ʼn mens sou kon aanvoer dat hierdie genetiese diversiteit irrelevant gemaak is deur die geskiedenis van rasse-klassifikasie waarvoor apartheid en Suid-Afrika bekend is.

Aangesien beide ras as etnisiteit deur die self sowel as van buite bepaal word, bly die vraag: wat onderskei ras van etnisiteit? Markus (2008, p. 654) stel die volgende definisies van ras en etnisiteit voor:

Race is a dynamic set of historically derived and institutionalized ideas and practices that (1) sorts people into ethnic groups according to perceived physical and behavioral human characteristics; (2) associates differential value, power, and privilege with these characteristics and establishes a social status ranking among the different groups; and (3) emerges (a) when groups are perceived to pose a threat (political, economic, or cultural) to each other’s world view or way of life; and/or (b) to justify the denigration and exploitation (past, current, or future) of, and prejudice toward, other groups.

Ethnicity is a dynamic set of historically derived and institutionalized ideas and practices that (1) allows people to identify or to be identified with groupings of people on the basis of presumed (and usually claimed) commonalities including language, history, nation or region of origin, customs, ways of being, religion, names, physical appearance, and/or genealogy or ancestry; (2) can be a source of meaning, action, and identity; and (3) confers a sense of belonging, pride, and motivation.

Die verskil tussen ras en etnisiteit lê met ander woorde volgens Markus nie daarin of fisiese voorkoms bydra tot in- of uitsluiting nie (fisiese verskille maak deel uit van beide ras en etnisiteit, volgens hierdie definisies), maar eerder dat ʼn neerhalende siening en uitbuiting van die ander ʼn komponent van ras is, terwyl etnisiteit positief gesien word as ʼn bron van betekenis, identiteit, ʼn gevoel van behoort en trots. Die skeidslyn, soos die voorafgaande aantoon, is egter vaag.

Fu, He en Hou (2014, p. 2483) stel ʼn eenvoudiger onderskeid tussen ras en etnisiteit voor: “race refers to a person’s physical appearance or characteristics, while ethnicity is more viewed as a culture concept, relating to nationality, rituals and cultural heritages, or even ideology”. Hulle let op navorsing van byvoorbeeld Zhuang en Bradtmiller (2005), Zhuang, et al. (2010), Ball en Molenbroek (2008), Ball, et al. (2010), Hill, et al. (1995) en Xie, et al. (2012), wat – in teenstelling met Markus se bewerings hierbo – wel daarop dui dat fisiese verskille gebruik kan word om ras te onderskei (sien ook Fu, He en Hou (2014) se bibliografie). Hierby sou ʼn mens Trivedi en Amali (2017) en Vo, et al. (2018) en hul bibliografieë kon voeg, wat dui op hoe fisiese verskille in masjienleer gebruik word om tussen rasse te onderskei.

Verskeie studies is in die verlede onderneem wat daarop dui dat die Afrikaner nie ʼn suiwer Europese genetiese samestelling het nie ((Heese, 1971) (Heese, 1979) (Heese, 1984) (Greeff, 2007) (Erasmus, et al., 2015)). Soos Pokahontas in Amerika die stammoeder van President Wilson geword het, het die slavin, Maria Lossee, byvoorbeeld die stammoeder van Presidente Kruger en Steyn geword (Heese, 1979). Boonop is daar die geval van die gemeenskap van swart Afrikaners by Onverwacht, wat na die Anglo-Boereoorlog toegelaat is om grond naby Cullinan te koop en hulself as Afrikaners klassifiseer ((De Vries, 2005) (Rhode, 2012)).

Hierteenoor was daar in die twintigste eeu ʼn poging om die Afrikaner wel as uitsluitlik van Europese herkoms te definieer ((Cloete, 1992) (Giliomee, 2004)). Colenbrander (1964) dui byvoorbeeld daarop dat die Afrikaner se gekleurde komponent minder as 1% van sy samestelling uitmaak. Gedurende die 20ste eeu is die term Afrikaner deur Afrikanernasionaliste geapproprieer om uitsluitlik op ‘wit’ Afrikaanssprekendes te dui ((Giliomee, 2004) (Theunissen, 2015)). Treurnicht (1975, p. 18) skryf byvoorbeeld: “Nooit sedert die volksplanting in 1652 is die gekleurde volksgroepe tot die volksgeledere van die Afrikaner of as deel van die blanke gemeenskap aanvaar nie.”

Ook meer onlangs word die Afrikaner gereeld as ʼn “wit” volk getipeer (Verwey & Quayle, 2012). Malan (2005) verwys na “die gangbare definisie van ‘’n Afrikaner’” as “ʼn blanke Afrikaanssprekende wat die Afrikanerkultuur deel,” en voeg by: “Die hele wêreld aanvaar tans dat Afrikaners blank is” (al verskil hy van hierdie siening). FW de Klerk skryf in sy ode aan Margaret Thatcher (De Klerk, 2013): “how would Afrikaners and other whites be able to retain the right to national self-determination that had been the central theme of their history?” Flip Buys (2013) skryf ook: “verreweg die meeste mense wat hulself as Afrikaners beskou [is] wit.” Solidariteit se Navorsingsinstituut (2018, p. 5) formuleer ʼn werksdefinisie oor die Afrikaner eenvoudig as “mense wat hulle ras as wit en hulle taal as Afrikaans aangee.” Die Cambridge woordeboek is meer eng wanneer hulle Afrikaner beskryf as: “a South African person whose family was originally Dutch and whose first language is Afrikaans,” wat ook soortgelyk is aan die definisie van die Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organisation (UNPO): “The Afrikaners are descendants of Europeans who arrived in South Africa in the seventeenth century. They speak their own language, Afrikaans, which is derived from Dutch” (UNPO, 2017). In al hierdie gevalle word a) die Afrikaner se herkoms as Europees erken, en b) sy taal as ʼn belangrike komponent van sy etnisiteit erken. Taal, soos die 14de eeuse Skotse historikus, John of Fordun, erken het (Bartlett, 2001, p. 48), speel ʼn belangrike rol in etnisiteit, en dus ook ten opsigte van die Afrikaner.

Die vraag wat egter in die huidige studie aan bod kom, is: wat is die algemene persepsie oor die ras van die Afrikaner? Hoe dit bepaal is, word in die volgende afdeling bespreek.

3. Metodes

In ʼn onlangse verslag dui World Wide Worx (2016) daarop dat die sosiale media platform, Twitter, deur om en by 7.7-milljoen mense in Suid-Afrika gebruik word, wat dit die derde gewildste sosiale media platform in Suid-Afrika na YouTube (8.74-milljoen) en Facebook (14-milljoen) maak. Twitter laat gebruikers toe om kort boodskappe te plaas om hul opinies te lug en is bekend daarvoor dat dit ʼn politieke platform is. Om hierdie rede word Twitter dan ook veral gebruik om mense se opinies te bepaal. Twitter word onder andere gebruik om die opinies van mense tydens en teenoor verkiesings te bepaal ((Tumasjan, et al., 2010) (Wang, et al., 2012)), mense se houdings teenoor projekte (Jiang, et al., 2016), die wêreld se emosionele toestand (Milne, et al., 2015), of mense se houdings teenoor gemeenskappe (Kotzé & Senekal, 2018). Tumasjan, et al. (2010, p. 184) voer aan: “Twitter can be seen as a valid real-time indicator of political sentiment.”

Een van die voordele van ʼn studie van Twitter is dat mense anders reageer wanneer hulle besef hulle word ondersoek (Barge & Endsor, 2014, p. 43), wat beteken dat vraelyste nie altyd mense se ‘ware’ opinies weergee nie maar dalk eerder wat hulle dink hulle moet antwoord (Chamlertwat, et al., 2012, p. 976). ʼn Nadeel is egter dat Twitter nie verteenwoordigend is van die algemene publiek nie (Omand, et al., 2012, p. 810), wat die veralgemeenbaarheid van resultate beperk. Aan die ander kant laat Twitter die navorser toe om ʼn baie groter hoeveelheid mense se opinies te ondersoek as wat tradisionele metodes soos vraelyste toelaat, wat weer die veralgemeenbaarheid van resultate verhoog. In die huidige studie word 14 119 gebruikers se opinies ontleed, wat aansienlik meer is as wat met byvoorbeeld vraelyste ondersoek kan word.

Vir die huidige studie is alle boodskappe (twiets) wat op Twitter geplaas is en waarin die woord “afrikaner” voorkom, versamel. Die datastel strek van 6 November 2018 tot 6 April 2019, dus oor vyf maande en sluit 67 799 twiets en 28 902 unieke twiets in wat deur 24 968 gebruikers geplaas is. Die woord is bo die hutsmerker (#Afrikaner) gekies omdat alle gebruikers nie noodwendig gebruik maak van die hutsmerker nie, en ʼn soektog na die woord tel die hutsmerker op, maar nie andersom nie.

Na die twiets versamel is, is die taal van die twiets geïdentifiseer deur gebruik te maak van Google se Natural Language Processing API. Dit is gedoen omdat twiets in verskeie tale gevind is waarin die woord afrikaner voorkom. Alle twiets is deur dieselfde API in Engels vertaal ten einde die inhoud te kan bepaal wanneer twiets in ʼn taal geplaas is wat die outeur nie magtig is nie (byvoorbeeld Spaans, Sweeds of Italiaans). Hierdie werkswyse is geensins foutloos nie, maar gegewe die volume teks en die feit dat masjienvertalings verstaanbaar is, is daar besluit om nie ʼn menslike vertaler te gebruik nie.

Die woord afrikaner dra verskillende betekenisse in verskillende tale. In Duits, Noorweegs, Deens en Sweeds verwys dit byvoorbeeld na “iemand vanaf Afrika”, terwyl die woord dieselfde betekenis in Spaans en Frans as in Afrikaans of Engels dra. Om te toets of woordeboekdefinisies ooreenstem met die gebruik van die woord afrikaner in verskillende tale, is steekproewe onderneem oor verskeie tale. Tabel 1 dui ʼn aantal voorbeelde uit die huidige datastel aan. Die outomatiese vertaling in Engels word regs verskaf.

Tabel 1 Die gebruik van die woord “afrikaner” in verskillende tale

Taal

Twiet

Engels (masjienvertaling)

Sweeds

Tre afrikaner häktade för gruppvåldtäkt på Södermalm – Nyheter Idag

Three Africans arrested for gang rape in Södermalm – News Today

En vacker och intelligent vit 22-åring tjej med A i alla ämnen blir gruppvåldtagen och mördad av ett gäng svarta afrikaner😡😡😡😭😭 Är det detta ni vill? Är det värt det med massinvandring? Dela om du vill se en förändring!😡 #svpol #migpol #sd2019 #AfS2019

A beautiful and intelligent white 22-year-old girl with A in all subjects are gang-raped and murdered by a gang of black afrikaner😡😡😡😭😭 Is that what you want? Is it worth it to mass immigration? Share if you want to see a change! 😡 #svpol #migpol # sd2019 # AfS2019

Noorweegs

Hvis du aldri har blitt forbanna på den innvandringspolitikken som føres i landet så har du heller aldri lest en personlig fortelling fra ei 15 år gammel jente om hvordan det føles å voldtas med kniv mot strupen av en afrikaner.

If you’ve never been pissed off at the immigration policies pursued in the country you have never read a personal story of a 15 years old girl about how it feels to be raped with a knife at the throat of an African.

Duits

Freiburg Hauptschule … ein Afrikaner schlägt einem Deutschen Schüler das Pausenbrot aus der Hand .. und schlägt Ihm in das Gesicht …. der Deutsche Schüler sagt Zitat : scheiss Neger… und schlägt zurück … Ergebnis ein Schulverweis … er muss such eine neue Schule suchen

Freiburg main school … an African beats a German student’s lunchbox from the hand .. and hits him in the face …. the German student says Quote: fucking nigger … and fighting back … Result an expulsion … he must search to find a new school

Wenn Gott gewollt hätte,dass Europa ein Ort für Afrikaner sei,hätte er sie weiss gemacht.!!!

If God had willed that Europe is a place for Africans, he would have made them white.!!!

Nederlands

Congolese(54) meegelift/carrière gemaakt bij linkse partij in Italië, stapt uit, richt “Afrikaanse partij op alleen voor Afrikanen” met 100%racistisch programma, links juicht

Congolese (54) hitched / career made by left-wing party in Italy, get off, dir “African Party for Africans only” 100% racist program, left cheers

Zo begint de #terreur – en met officiele #toestemming! De kleinste Nederlandse kinderen gaan uitgescholden & belaagd worden op sinterklaasfeestjes. Hoe verschilt dat van belaagde #Afrikaner kleintjes op lagerescholen in #ZuidAfrika? –

Thus begins the #terreur – and with official #toestemming! The smallest Dutch children are abused and attacked to Saint Nicholas parties. How is that different from endangered #Afrikaner children in lower schools #ZuidAfrika? –

Pools

Erytrejczyk i dwaj Somalijczycy aresztowani za gwałt zbiorowy w centrum Sztokholmu

Eritrean and two Somalis arrested for gang rape in central Stockholm

Niemcy. Migrant z Afryki subsaharyjskiej przeciął twarz młodej kobiety nożem tylko dlatego, że nie miała papierosa! Kirchheim Teck 19-letnia kobieta w sobotni wieczór o godzinie 23:15 została poważnie oszpecona nożem.

Germany. Migrant from sub-Saharan Africa cut the face of a young woman with a knife because she did not have a cigarette! Kirchheim Teck 19-year-old woman on Saturday night at 23:15 was severely disfigured knife.

Frans

1/7 des afrikaners vie dans des bidonvilles ( 500 000 ) La politique actuelle est anti blanche. Effectivement il y a un certain pouvoir blanc mais cela ne doit pas de résoudre comme cela . C’est pour ça que je prenne une zone de l’Afrique du sur pour les afrikaner et les coloured

1/7 Afrikaners living in slums (500,000) Current policy is anti white. Sure there are some white power but this does not solve like that. That’s why I take an African area on for Afrikaner and colored

ce matin: Deuxième temps ce mardi de notre série sur l’Afrique du Sud. Aujourd’hui Victor Macé de Lépinay nous guide, en compagnie de ses deux invitées, dans le Voortrekker Monument de Pretoria, lieu symbolique de l’histoire afrikaner.

this morning Second time on Tuesday in our series on South Africa. Today Victor Mace Lépinay to guide us with his two guests in the Voortrekker Monument in Pretoria, symbolic place of Afrikaner history.

Let daarop dat die “afrikaner” betrokke by die verkragting in Södermalm in Swede elders geïdentifiseer is as afkomstig van Somalië en Eritrea. Bostaande voorbeelde toon duidelik aan dat woordeboekdefinisies steeds geldig is: In Duits, Sweeds, Deens en Pools dui die woord op “iemand vanaf Afrika”, terwyl die woord in Frans na ʼn Afrikaanssprekende verwys.

Eenvoudigheidshalwe en ten einde slegs twiets in te sluit wat na die Afrikaner as Afrikaanssprekende verwys, is slegs twiets ingesluit wat in Engels geplaas is. Indien daar volgens taal gefiltreer word, bly daar 23 832 twiets oor wat deur 14 119 gebruikers geplaas is.

Na twiets verwyder is wat nie relevant is vir die huidige studie nie, is kernwoorde geïdentifiseer wat saamhang met ʼn aanduiding dat Afrikaners as wit gesien word. Hierdie woorde is met ʼn deeglike lees van die eerste 5 000 twiets geïdentifiseer en deur middel van steekproewe verder geverifieer. Die woorde white, privilege, Boer, WMC, Holland, Europe, Dutch, thief en black is byvoorbeeld geïdentifiseer as samehangend met ras. Kyk byvoorbeeld na die tien voorbeelde in Tabel 2, wat aandui dat die spreker die Afrikaner as wit ag. Die 15 twiets wat die meeste gedeel is en waarin velkleur gespesifiseer is, word in Addendum 1 verskaf. Die 15 twiets wat die meeste gedeel is en waarin velkleur nie gespesifiseer is nie, word in Addendum 2 verskaf. Twiets word verbatim weergegee.

Tabel 2 Twiets wat saamhang met ras

Twiet

Kernwoord

  1. Round 1 motion of Cape Town WUDC: TH, as South Africa, would forcibly break up exclusive Afrikaner* enclaves. *Afrikaners are a white South African ethnic group descended from predominantly Dutch settlers

white

  1. When an Afrikaner says “Ons” he’s not talking bout any black person.

black

  1. #racism #racist #blacklivesmatter #ChildrensBooks #ChildrenInNeed #Afrikaans #WhitePeople #Afrikaner #ElectionEve #Election2018 Who would let #CHILDREN live like this? We WILL end all #squattercamps in #SouthAfrica by March 2019 PERIOD! SUPPORT US

white

  1. “Afrikaner boys (White men), die poppe sal dans” “The EFF is coming for you” “Pray that the EFF don’t come into power, because if we do…………” #FarmMurders

white

  1. Afrikaner nationalists used the same argument to address the “poor whites question” in 1932. It was known then as the Carnegie Commission. It became better known as “apartheid”.

white

  1. Forgive who? Every white person in Africa is European, whether you’re English or Afrikaner you’re European. We shall pick ourselves up, which is why land expropriation is top of the agenda.

white

  1. While we black South Africans are failing to build a single school that will embrace our own culture. Busy forcing our children in throat of white and Afrikaner schools. While running away from free public schools we created. We are useless kodwa, we don’t invest in education.

black

  1. I don’t care how the world is divided I care about your Genetic makeup, you can call yourselves Afrikaner all day but your DNA is still Dutch

Dutch

  1. ‘Afrikaner’ : a White native of the Republic of South Africa whose mother tongue is Afrikaans. See also ‘Boer’.

white

  1. ” Teach us Black people to trade within ourselves… like you guys do ” – a Black woman to an Afrikaner businessman! I am defeated!!! 😥🤮🤒☹

black

Na sulke kernwoorde geïdentifiseer is, is van ʼn gereelde uitdrukking gebruik gemaak om alle twiets in twee kategorieë te klassifiseer op grond van of die woorde voorkom of nie: stelling dat die Afrikaner wit is/geen stelling dat die Afrikaner wit is nie. Daar is ook ondersoek ingestel na die geskiktheid van masjienleer om boodskappe te klassifiseer, maar aangesien die datastel skeef is (sien resultate hieronder), was masjienleer nie geskik vir die huidige ondersoek nie.

Daar is ook ondersoek ingestel na of mense ontken dat ras ʼn komponent van die Afrikaner se etnisiteit uitmaak. Sulke twiets is moeiliker om op te spoor, maar by nadere ondersoek kon verwysings na Sandra Laing (ʼn meisie wat in 1955 as kleurling geklassifiseer is na albei haar ouers as wit geklassifiseer is) en die woorde actually white en bloodline gebruik word. Voorbeelde van sulke twiets kan in Tabel 3 gesien word. Twiets word verbatim weergegee.

Tabel 3 Twiets wat dui op die Afrikaner se gemengde herkoms

Twiet

Kernwoord

  1. More importantly, and the point of @user’s tweet, is how is black being defined? The Afrikaner bloodline is shown to have as much as 6% “non white” (see @user). Is 6% black enough? 25%? What about 50%? What about Sandra Laing?

Laing

  1. I have long pointed out that the Afrikaner bloodline has a percentage of “black” blood. There’s been shunned as not “black enough”. Now suddenly people who identify as white are being called out as not being white. This country is truly screwed up

bloodline

  1. It’s the same reason why they keep editing out the Wikipedia pages that point out that their Afrikaner heroes like Andries Pretorius who lead the great trek and who Pretoria is named after wasn’t actually white.

Actually white

  1. Francis Galton wrote that genetic recessives reveal itself generation(s) later through differential reproduction. Sandra Laing (1955) was a black girl born to ”white” Afrikaner parents in South Africa. Both parents had genetic recessives.

Laing

Twiets wat ontken dat die Afrikaner wit is, is met behulp van sulke woorde as gemeng geklassifiseer, wat beteken twiets kon nou in drie kategorieë geklassifiseer word:

  1.     aanduiding dat die Afrikaner wit is,
  2.     aanduiding dat die Afrikaner gemeng is,
  3.     geen verwysing na ras nie.

Verder is dit belangrik om te bepaal of ras deur Afrikaners self aan die Afrikaner toegeskryf word en of dit van buite opgelê word. Daar is reeds ʼn groot hoeveelheid navorsing gedoen oor die bepaling van ras deur middel van name (Malmasi & Dras, 2014) (Lee, et al., 2017) (Voicu, 2018). Mislove, Lehmann, Ahn, Onnela en Rosenquist (2011) skakel byvoorbeeld die vanne van Twitter-gebruikers met die VSA se nasionale sensus om gebruikers se ras te bepaal. Hulle (2011, p. 556) noem byvoorbeeld dat die van Meyers in 86% van gevalle na witmense verwys, 9,7% van gevalle na swart Amerikaners, 0,4% van gevalle na Asiate, en in 1,4% van gevalle na mense van Spaanse afkoms. Lee et al. (2017, p. 2081) skryf dat taal die belangrikste maatstaf is om mense se herkoms deur middel van name op te spoor: mense met Duitse name is waarskynlik van Duitse of Oostenrykse afkoms, terwyl mense met Chinese name waarskynlik van Chinese afkoms is. Tweedens moet ʼn mens volgens Lee et al. (2017, p. 2081) ʼn land se geskiedenis in ag neem: die Spaanse kolonialisasie van Mexiko het byvoorbeeld daartoe gelei dat Meksikane oorwegend Spaanse name het.

Lee et al. (2017, p. 2081) se insigte kan op Suid-Afrika van toepassing gemaak word. Taal speel steeds ʼn belangrike rol in Suid-Afrika en mense met Zoeloe, Xhosa of Sotho vanne behoort oorwegend swart te wees, terwyl mense met Afrikaanse vanne meesal wit of kleurling behoort te wees, alhoewel die historiese vermenging van die wit en kleurling bevolking kan veroorsaak dat ʼn onderskeid moeilik is om te tref op grond van Afrikaanse vanne. Omdat taal steeds ʼn belangrike faktor in Suid-Afrika is, maak ek gebruik van Google se Natural Language Processing API om die linguistiese herkoms van gebruikersname te bepaal. Dié metode sal geensins foutloos wees nie, maar kan as ʼn aanduiding gebruik word van wie oor die Afrikaner skryf op Twitter. Neem egter ook in ag dat gebruikers self hul name kan invul, wat beteken dat hulle enige name kan gee.

Die volgende afdeling bespreek die resultate.

4. Resultate

Tabel 4 dui die resultate van die huidige studie aan. Die kategorie wit/gemeng sluit aan by gemeng, maar dui ook aan dat die twiet daarna verwys dat die Afrikaner as wit gesien word. Sulke twiets dui gewoonlik aan dat alhoewel die Afrikaner as wit gesien word, hy inderwaarheid van gemengde herkoms is.

Tabel 4 Engelse twiets oor die Afrikaner (insluitend geen ras genoem nie)

Etniese herkoms

#twiets

%twiets

#gebruikers

%gebruikers

ongedefinieer

13911

58,37

7791

55,18

wit

9899

41,54

6309

44,68

wit / gemeng

21

0,09

18

0,13

gemeng

1

0

1

0,01

Totaal

23832

100

14119

100

Van die 23 832 twiets wat oor die Afrikaner (in die Afrikaanse of Engelse sin van die term) handel, het die woorde white, privilege, Boer, WMC, Holland, Europe, Dutch, thief en black in 9 899 (41,54%) twiets voorgekom. Dit beteken dat 42% van die 23 832 twiets duidelik stel dat hulle die Afrikaner as wit ag. Uit die 14 119 gebruikers het 6 309 (44,68%) gebruikers ook gestel dat hulle die Afrikaner as wit ag. Slegs 22 twiets (0,09%) het gestel dat die Afrikaner as gemeng geag kan word, en dié siening verteenwoordig slegs 19 gebruikers (0,14%). Die res van die twiets het nie uitlatings oor ras gemaak nie.

Die resultate is meer treffend as twiets uit die resultate verwyder word wat geen uitlatings oor ras maak nie. Tabel 5 dui die resultate aan as twiets weggelaat word wat geen uitlatings oor ras maak nie.

Tabel 5 Engelse twiets oor die Afrikaner (uitgesluit geen ras genoem nie)

Etniese herkoms

#twiets

%twiets

#gebruikers

%gebruikers

wit

9899

99,78

6309

99,69

wit / gemeng

21

0,21

18

0,28

gemeng

1

0,01

1

0,02

Totaal

9921

100

6328

99,99

Tabel 5 dui aan dat wanneer ras genoem word, 9 899 twiets (99,8% van twiets) en 99,7% van gebruikers (6 309 gebruikers) die Afrikaner as wit ag, teenoor 0,21% van twiets en 0,3% van gebruikers (19 gebruikers) wat die Afrikaner as gemeng sien.

ʼn Verdere vraag is of Afrikaners self ras ter sprake bring en of ras deur nie-Afrikaners aan die Afrikaner toegeskryf word. Tabel 6 dui die taal van gebruikersname aan wat ras noem (top 10 tale).

Tabel 6 Taal van gebruikersname

Taal van naam

#gebruikers

%gebruikers

Engels

2783

43,81%

Zoeloe

605

9,52%

ongedefinieer

362

5,7%

Afrikaans

286

4,5%

Nederlands

187

2,94%

Sotho

161

2,53%

Frans

110

1,73%

Duits

103

1,62%

Spaans

88

1,39%

Xhosa

87

1,37%

Hier kan gesien word dat die grootste segment gebruikers Engelse name aangegee het, gevolg deur Zoeloe en dan Afrikaanse en Nederlandse gebruikersname. As gevolg van Afrikaners se diverse Europese oorsprong, kan dit verwag word dat Afrikaners se name as Afrikaans, Nederlands, Frans en Duits geïdentifiseer kan word, maar die Zoeloe, Sotho en Xhosa name is duidelik swart name. In die geval van Engelse name dui die groot persentasie op die gewildheid van Engelse name, maar dit is nie moontlik om te bepaal hoeveel van hierdie name na swart of wit gebruikers verwys nie. Nietemin dui Tabel 6 aan dat gebruikers wat ras aan die Afrikaner koppel, oorwegend nie Afrikaanse (of Nederlandse, Duitse of Franse) name het nie, wat daarop dui dat ras in die meerderheid gevalle van buite aan die Afrikaner opgelê word. Daar is egter ook ʼn groot groep met Afrikaanse, Nederlandse, Duitse en Franse name wat na ras verwys, wat daarop dui dat die etikettering van die Afrikaner as wit van sowel buite as binne opgelê word.

Indien ras van buite opgelê word, soos aangevoer deur byvoorbeeld Bartlett (2001) en Markus (2008) en toegepas deur die Unie van Suid-Afrika (1950), dan is dit duidelik dat om wit te wees, deel is van die Afrikaner se etnisiteit.

ʼn Klein aantal vals positiewe is ook gevind. Tabel 7 dui ʼn paar aan.

Tabel 7 Vals positiewe

Twiet

Kernwoord

  1. Slightly toasted white bread with lots of butter, dipped into sweet tea? Yeah its an old afrikaner thing, my grandparents used to do it a lot.

white

  1. Haha! Nah! Brahman has a tough competition man, there is Simmental Breed, Charolais Breed, Simbra Breed, Chabri Breed, Bonsmara Breed, Afrikaner Breed, etc. All along, I thought Brahman was..

Afrikaner

  1. Afrikaner Cattle. Because sometimes it’s easy to forget that there are breeds other than Angus, Charolais, and Simmental. (Picture from ). #cattle

Afrikaner

  1. Those criminal delinquents from Europe did not bring women to the cape. They found our beautiful xhoi and Nguni women here and raped them and that’s how the Afrikaner nation was born

Europe

Die eerste twiet is ʼn seldsame resep, maar dit is die enigste keer wat so iets voorkom. In die tweede en derde twiets word na Afrikanerbeeste verwys, maar dit is ook die enigste voorkoms van sulke verwysings. Die vierde twiet is egter interessant: dit postuleer ʼn heel ander verduideliking van die Afrikaner se genetiese herkoms. Die voorkoms van sulke uitsonderings is egter so min dat dit nie ʼn bedreiging vir die geldigheid van die resultate inhou nie.

5. Gevolgtrekking

Hierdie studie het duidelik aangetoon dat die Afrikaner se fisiese voorkoms ʼn belangrike komponent van sy etnisiteit uitmaak. Daar is uitgewys dat die oorweldigende meerderheid mense (99,7% van gebruikers wat ras noem) die Afrikaner as wit eerder as gemeng sien. Dit is ook beduidend dat meer as 41% van twiets ras noem: hier is geen poging aangewend om mense te vra of hulle die Afrikaner as wit sien nie, maar eerder is daar bloot gekyk na wat mense self oor Afrikaners sê. Bykans die helfte van gebruikers het uit hul eie ras ter sprake gebring, en dan met so ʼn oorweldigende meerderheid wat om wit te wees as ʼn komponent van Afrikanerwees sien. Alhoewel ras nie aanvanklik ʼn belangrike komponent van die Afrikaner se etnisiteit uitgemaak het nie, dui die huidige studie daarop dat dit tans die geval is.

Ras is egter net een komponent van die Afrikaner se etnisiteit, en toekomstige studies kan ander aspekte ontleed, asook ondersoek instel na hoe die Afrikaner in ander opsigte gesien word, byvoorbeeld oor watter temas hierdie twiets handel en of die Afrikaner in ʼn positiewe of negatiewe lig uitgebeeld word. Sulke studies kan gebruik maak van sentimentontleding of masjienleer om temas te identifiseer.

6. Verwysings

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7. Addendum 1: Ras duidelik gespesifiseer

Hierdie is die 15 twiets wat die meeste gedeel is waarin ras gespesifiseer is.

Nommer

Teks

#rekords
1

Happy 72nd Birthday to the late Steve Biko. An anti-apartheid activist, he founded the Black Consciousness Movement. On 12 September 1977, Stephen Bantu Biko died in a prison cell in Pretoria. 20 years later, an Afrikaner police, Gideon Nieuwoudt, admitted to killing him.

857
2

Dear Citizen. Here is your genocide definition. Don’t think it’s not happening because you’re not a white Afrikaner. Call us brats, cry-babies or cockroaches, if you want. You will be judged for laughing at the pain of an exterminated minority

186
3

SA celebs are part of this ongoing racist problem. Just a few days ago, black Twitter sympathized with Lerato Kganyago for being attacked by an Afrikaner man. We even pressured PickNPay to release the tape of her ordeal. Today #CliftonBeach is trending, she’s nowhere to be found.

178
4

#GivenMakhari was fawning & weak & allowed #JohannRupert to get away with appalling racist arrogance. Johann is an arrogant, racist white Afrikaner. He treated Given with disdain. Not sure Given deserve better. But black South Africa does not deserve Johann Rupert’s arrogance!

154
5

Like I previously said. It’s useless to celebrate Siya Kolisi as the first Springbok Captain for as long as he still continues to sing “Die Stem” and infatuated with the whole Afrikaner culture in SA Rugby. Not all blacks are black excellence, esp blacks who are wannabe whites

134
6

Plz help support the most vulnerable in South Africa.These white children &elderly suffer greatly due 2racist govt policies.Elderly should never hav2 survive on cat food&all children should have blankets.Please take time to read.

100
7

Before formalisation Afrikaans was considered a “Hotnotstaaltjie”. 200 years after the birth of Oude Ram Afrikaner, white settlers started to call themselves Afrikaners and took Afrikaans, the language of the mixed-race descendants of indigenous Khoikhoi and slaves, as their own.

82
8

Afrikaner Children Squatter Camps  Afrikaner young suffering for a past they had no say in. With their parents falling victim to B.E.E laws, what future have these people?

76
9

For my claims of genocide to qualify I can only include white, Afrikaner farmers. Not all whites. Although subject to staggering mortality rates, very few groups in the world are killed at rates higher than 100/100 000. No singing matter and no parody can soften the blow.

67
10

Did you know that Namib Mills, a company owned by a white South African man who doesn’t even live in Namibia, has an all white management team? Everyone, bar one German lady, is a white Afrikaner. Checkout their website:

56
11

I might be Irish, I know I am a a$$hole… but I have never met a “culture and nation” that has more respect, love, perseverance, patience, respect and love as a true Afrikaner (Boer) – I have your back Boertjie and much love #TwitterBoere

53
12

#Pretoria | Boereoorlog forte moet as erfenis bewaar word!🇿🇦 “Die @VFplusGP-Jeug doen ‘n beroep op die @CityTshwane asook die departement van @ArtsCultureSA om die vier forte in Pretoria te restoureer!” – @JeanKriek 📌Artikel:  #OnsErfenis #AngloBoerWar🐴

51
13

ENGLAND WAS NEVER CHARGE WITH WAR CRIMES AGAINST AFRIKANERS WHICH WAS COMMITTED IN THE BOER WAR? IT’S NEVER TO LATE TO GET JUSTICE? ENGLAND HAVE NEVER APOLOGIES FOR THEIR ABUSE OF THE AFRIKANER WOMEN AND CHILDREN? RAPE, HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATION, MURDER OF CHILDREN BY STAVING THEM?

48
14

America 🇺🇸 is slowly awakening what the ANC EFF BFLF Terrorists are doing to the Afrikaner Boer People in South Africa 🇿🇦. The ANC EFF BFLF are nothing but MONSTERS!!

48
15

In 1707 a man named Hendrik Bidault, on being arrested at the Cape by the VOC, shouted “Ik ben een Africaander!” (I am an Afrikaner!) Bidault’s defiant cry of secession from Dutch law & VOC sovereignty was a leap towards establishing a new identity – an Afrikaner identity.

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8. Addendum 2: Ras nie gespesifiseer nie

Hierdie is die 15 twiets wat die meeste gedeel is waarin ras nie gespesifiseer is nie.

Nommer Teks #rekords
1

Accord on Afrikaner self-determination recognises the Afrikaner people’s right to self-determination Signed on 23 April 1994 by: 1. FF – Constand Viljoen 2. ANC – Thabo Mbeki 3. Apartheid Govt (NP) – Roelf Meyer Protected by the Constitution in Section 235 Orania was first.

337
2

I always have a little laugh when I think about how the actual Jan van Riebeeck (left) wasn’t aesthetically pleasing enough for Afrikaner nationalist propaganda, so they kept the erroneous image of Bartholomeus Vermuyden (right), a man with no connection to South Africa😂

190
3

Afrikaner nationalism forced all government employees to join Sanlam. In China; they closed down Amazon until Alibaba became number 1 in the world. In South Africa we talk BBBEE but can’t have most employees on Sizwe Medical Aid.

139
4

Rather than blaming Britain for the Afrikaner people’s poverty in the 1930/40’s, #JohanRupert’s father started a business in his garage and worked 30 years before achieving success! To negate that is cognitive dissonance.

99
5

I have a South African ID that states I am South Africa. I come from the Afrikaner culture and I speak Afrikaans, note the “Afrika” in both of those words. You can come with your idiotic ideas and statements that I am not African, I will simply slap you with my RSA ID. Tsek.

87
6

Tomorrow is our Covenant day! Be sure to share it with all your Afrikaner Patriot friends to celebrate it!

78
7

Despite superior military power, Afrikaners simply surrendered without defeat. “You, me and our men can take this country in an afternoon,” said former Chief of the SADF general Constand Viljoen, famously to General George Meiring. But, the Afrikaner just gave up his birthright.

75
8

Afrikaner calls Clifton beach protesters ‘k***ir barbarians’, Malema a ‘real k***ir’

73
9

A grand total of 22 house break-ins and robberies in rural areas, maliciously labelled “farm attacks” by Afrikaner supremacist lobby Afriforum have been reported in the Western Cape in 2018 Meanwhile Manenberg had 505 gunshots in 9 days without a single lobby group raising alarm

69
10 Give the Afrikaner Nation an empty piece of desolate land and come back in 100 years. What do you think you would find? 68
11

Mkhari – let’s create opportunities for networking for business. Rupert: You want an Afrikaner money ? #RupertOnPower 🤯😳🥶

68
12 Has anyone seen this before? Afrikaner Self Determination Accords- Signed by the UK & US ambassadors. And agreed to by the ANC. 63
13

If we are to get Help from the USA, Do you want refugee status or a forced negotiated settlement for a homeland along the lines of the Afrikaner Self Determination accords 1994 (see thread for info)

55
14

I am in need of all Afrikaner people. Something major is being prepared to prove without a doubt exactly what’s going on, in a legal way…in chronological order. We need to cooperation of ur community 2 help w/statements of being victims and any evidence of proof. Documents…

55
15

Yes, your anti-Afrikaner racism makes it hard for you to show respect when an Afrikaner is speaking…

46